Advanced Failsafe Configuration¶
The core failsafe functionality of Plane is based on RTL (Return to Launch). It is able to initiate a RTL if the aircraft loses contact with the ground station or loses RC control. That is fine for most users, but in some situations more advanced failsafe capabilities are needed. That is what the Advanced Failsafe options are for.
The advanced failsafe options for Plane were added for the Outback Challenge competition, and the features are designed to fit the rules of that competition. Whereas normal failsafe is oriented around saving the aircraft in case control is lost by the pilot, the OBC rules are oriented around ensuring safe operation in a defined region of airspace. This means that the advanced failsafe options are designed to deliberately crash the aircraft if there is any risk that it may fly outside of the region of airspace defined by a geographic boundary and a maximum altitude.
While the advanced failsafe features of Plane were designed for the OBC competition, they can be useful in other situations, and are very flexible. They are also harder to configure, so please read this page carefully several times before deciding whether to enable these features on your aircraft.
The key difference between normal failsafe and the advanced failsafe (AFS) options is that the AFS options are mission based. When a failsafe option (such as loss of GPS lock or loss of ground station communications link) happens, the AFS options specify a waypoint number in the mission that the aircraft will switch to. This allows the pilot to configure a complex series of actions to take when a failsafe event occurs - anything that can be scripted as an Plane mission can be made to happen on failsafe events.
Typically the pilot will setup the AFS options for failsafe conditions so that the aircraft will loiter at its current location for some period of time (say one minute) and then proceed back towards home via a pre-determined flight path. It may also include changes in airspeed, changes in altitude, automatic landing or anything else that can be programmed in a mission. If the failsafe event stops (for example GPS lock is regained) then the aircraft will switch back to the mission item it was previously flying towards and continue the mission.
This makes the AFS options only really appropriate for AUTO missions. If you are primarily flying Plane in CRUISE mode or other modes then you should use the standard failsafe options.
Enabling the AFS failsafe system¶
To enable the AFS failsafe system you need to set the AFS_ENABLE parameter to 1. The default is zero, which means all the other options are disabled.
Note that the AFS system is only built into Plane by default on higher end autopilot boards like the PX4 and Pixhawk. On the APM2 you must recompile the firmware yourself to use the AFS system.
The concept of “flight termination” is key to understanding the AFS failsafe system. Termination is where the aircraft deliberately dives into the ground by setting all control surfaces to maximum and throttle to zero so as to enter a spin.
The AFS system will only start a termination if the AFS_TERM_ACTION is set to the magic value 42. For any other value the AFS system will print a message on the GCS console saying that it wants to terminate, but won’t actually change the control surfaces at all. Using a value other than 42 is useful for test flights where you don’t want the aircraft to terminate on a failsafe event.
Note that if AFS_TERM_ACTION is not set to 42 then other normal failsafe code is still active, for example if you have a geofence enabled then the aircraft will fly back to the geofence return point.
When enabled, the AFS termination system also sets up the secondary IO microcontroller on the Pixhawk autopilot to terminate the aircraft if communication is interrupted between the main FMU microcontroller and the IO microcontroller, for example if the flight firmware crashes.
An AFS flight termination is not recoverable. Once your aircraft starts a termination, there is no way to recover.
Types of Failsafe Events¶
The AFS failsafe system supports five of types of failsafe events:
- geofence breach
- maximum pressure altitude breach
- GPS loss
- Ground station communications loss
- barometer failure
Each of these types of failures has its own specific handling, which is described below.
If a geofence is enabled then the AFS failsafe module will monitor the aircraft for a breach of the boundaries of the geofence (and lower and upper geofence altitudes if set). If a breach happens then the AFS system will immediately terminate the flight (see termination above).
Maximum pressure altitude breach¶
When sharing airspace with other aircraft it is usual practice to define the available flight altitudes in terms of a common reference pressure, typically QNH (a reference to “nautical height”). The QNH reference pressure, measured in millibar, is distributed to all aircraft either via a radio message or through aviation internet and weather sites.
Aircraft then use their barometer to measure the pressure relative to that QNH pressure, which gives them an altitude reference which all aircraft in the area should be using.
The AFS system is able to enforce a pressure altitude limit by setting the QNH pressure in the AFS_QNH_PRESSURE parameter, as a value in millibars. The pilot should then also set a pressure altitude limit using the AFS_AMSL_LIMIT parameter (in meters). Note that this pressure altitude limit is relative to sea level (AMSL stands for “above mean sea level”).
If both of these parameters are set then the AFS system fill monitor pressure altitude and will initiate a termination if the pressure altitude rises above the AFS_AMSL_LIMIT.
You need to be very careful to set the right AFS_QNH_PRESSURE for your local conditions on the day of your flight, as the QNH pressure can be very different on different days.
In addition to the QNH pressure limit, the AFS system also monitors the health of your barometer. If the barometer is unhealthy for 5 seconds then the AFS system will check the AFS_AMSL_ERR_GPS parameter. If it is -1 (the default) then the aircraft will terminate immediately. If it is not -1 then the AFS system will use the AFS_AMSL_ERR_GPS value as a margin to add to the GPS height, and will allow the flight to continue if the GPS altitude plus the AFS_AMSL_ERR_GPS value (in meters) is below the AFS_AMSL_LIMIT value. The purpose of this margin is to account for the inaccuracy of GPS altitudes. A value of 200 is reasonable for safety to ensure the AFS_AMSL_LIMIT pressure altitude is not breached.
The AFS system monitors the health of your GPS receivers throughout the flight. If all of your available GPS receivers lose position lock then this initiates a GPS failure failsafe.
When a GPS failure occurs (which is defined as loss of GPS lock for 3 seconds) the AFS system will look at the AFS_WP_GPS_LOSS parameter. This parameter species a waypoint number in your mission to use when a GPS failure occurs. If AFS_WP_GPS_LOSS is non-zero the aircraft will change current waypoint to the waypoint number specified in AFS_WP_GPS_LOSS. You should setup your mission so that the aircraft will perform whatever actions you want on GPS loss. For example, you could have a set of waypoints starting at number 10 which first loiter on the spot for 30 seconds, and then proceed back to the airfield. You would then set AFS_WP_GPS_LOSS to 10 to enable that part of the mission on loss of GPS lock.
When setting up mission items for GPS lock it is sometimes useful to include “loiter at the current location” waypoints. That is achieved by setting both the latitude and longitude of LOITER mission commands to zero.
If the GPS recovers after a GPS failsafe has started, then the aircraft will automatically resume its mission where it left off.
If during a period of GPS loss the aircraft also loses communications with the ground station then this is termed a “dual loss”, and the aircraft will terminate.
If AFS_MAX_GPS_LOSS is set to a non-zero number, then it is used as a maximum count of the number of GPS failures that will be allowed while returning to the mission after GPS lock is re-established. This counter is only incremented if the 2nd GPS failure happens at least 30 seconds after the previous one (to account for a short period of GPS failure).
Ground station communications loss¶
The AFS system monitors the health of the link between your ground station and your aircraft. It does this by looking for HEARTBEAT MAVLink messages coming from the ground station.
If the aircraft does not receive a HEARTBEAT message for a period of 10 seconds then it enters a GCS failsafe state. It then looks for a AFS_WP_COMMS parameter, and if that is non-zero it will change the current target waypoint to the one given in AFS_WP_COMMS. You should set up a section of your mission with whatever actions you want to take on loss of communications.
If GPS lock is lost at the same time as GCS communications is lost then that is considered a “dual loss”, and the aircraft will immediately terminate.
Note that the monitoring of HEARTBEAT messages only tells the autopilot that it can see messages from the ground station. It does not mean the ground station can see messages from the aircraft. So it is quite possible for your ground station to be reporting loss of communication while the aircraft is still receiving HEARTBEAT messages.
If AFS_MAX_COM_LOSS is set to a non-zero number, then it is used as a maximum count of the number of communication failures that will be allowed while returning to the mission after communications is re-established. This counter is only incremented if the 2nd comms failure happens at least 30 seconds after the previous one (to account for a short period of communications failure).
If RC control is lost in a manual control mode for more than AFS_RC_FAIL_MS milliseconds, flight termination is activated. This termination mode is only enabled if AFS_RC_FAIL_MS is non-zero. For the OBC rules it should be set to 1500 (giving 1.5 seconds).
Monitoring the AFS system¶
The AFS system provides some additional parameters to make it easier to monitor the health of the failsafe system using external electronics (such as an external failsafe board).
The key parameters are:
- AFS_TERM_PIN: This is a digital pin which is set to a high voltage if termination is started. Note that this pin will go high on termination even if the AFS_TERM_ACTION parameter is not set to 42.
- AFS_HB_PIN: This is a digital pin number for a pin which is toggled at a rate of 10Hz by the failsafe system. If termination occurs and a AFS_TERM_PIN value is not set then the heartbeat pin will stop toggling.
- AFS_MAN_PIN: This is a digital pin number for a pin which goes high when the aircraft is in MANUAL mode. It may be useful with some external failsafe boards to detect manual mode and behave differently.
Apart from automatic termination it is also important for the aircrafts operator to be able to terminate the aircraft immediately if they think the aircraft is a danger to people or other aircraft. To force an immediate termination you should use the AFS_TERMINATION parameter. By setting that parameter to 1 the aircraft will immediately terminate.
Example AFS failsafe mission¶
Setting up a AFS failsafe mission takes time, and needs to be done very carefully. To help you understand what is possible you may find the following example files useful
Testing the AFS system in SITL¶
It is highly recommended that you extensively test the AFS system using the SITL simulation system before using it on a real aircraft. You can simulate all types of in-flight failures using the SIM_ parameters. To start SITL in Kingaroy ready for OBC testing you would use:
sim_vehicle.py -L Kingaroy --console --map
The key parameters for failsafe testing in SITL are:
- Test GPS failure: param set SIM_GPS_DISABLE 1
- Test RC failure: param set SIM_RC_FAIL 1
- Test comms failure: set heartbeat 0
- Test fence failure: switch to CRUISE mode and fly across boundary
- Test QNH failure: param set AFS_AMSL_LIMIT 100
Additional tips for AFS failsafe users¶
You need to ensure that your geofence is enabled before takeoff. This can either be done as part of your preflight checklist, or you could set a FENCE_CHANNEL and enable it from within your transmitter. This ensures that if your transmitter is out of range that the fence remains enabled.
Settings for Outback Challenge 2014¶
To be compliant with the OBC 2014 rules you should have the following settings:
- AFS_ENABLE: 1
- AFS_WP_COMMS: waypoint number for OBC comms hold followed by two minute loiter, then return to airfield home
- AFS_WP_GPS_LOSS: waypoint number to loiter in place for 30 seconds, followed by return to airfield home
- AFS_TERM_ACTION: 42
- AFS_AMSL_LIMIT: 914
- AFS_QNH_PRESSURE: correct QNH pressure for the day
- AFS_RC_FAIL_MS: 1500
- AFS_MAX_GPS_LOSS: 2
- AFS_MAX_COM_LOSS: 2