Complete Parameter List

This is a complete list of the parameters which can be set (e.g. via the MAVLink protocol) to control vehicle behaviour. They are stored in persistent storage on the vehicle.

This list is automatically generated from the latest ardupilot source code, and so may contain parameters which are not yet in the stable released versions of the code.

ArduPlane Parameters

FORMAT_VERSION: Eeprom format version number

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This value is incremented when changes are made to the eeprom format

SYSID_SW_TYPE: Software Type

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is used by the ground station to recognise the software type (eg ArduPlane vs ArduCopter)

ReadOnly
True

CLI_ENABLED: CLI Enable

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enables/disables the checking for three carriage returns on telemetry links on startup to enter the diagnostics command line interface

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

AUTOTUNE_LEVEL: Autotune level

Level of aggressiveness for autotune. When autotune is run a lower AUTOTUNE_LEVEL will result in a ‘softer’ tune, with less aggressive gains. For most users a level of 6 is recommended.

Range Increment
1 - 10 1

TELEM_DELAY: Telemetry startup delay

The amount of time (in seconds) to delay radio telemetry to prevent an Xbee bricking on power up

Range Increment Units
0 - 30 1 seconds

GCS_PID_MASK: GCS PID tuning mask

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

bitmask of PIDs to send MAVLink PID_TUNING messages for

Bitmask
Bit Meaning
0 Roll
1 Pitch
2 Yaw

KFF_RDDRMIX: Rudder Mix

The amount of rudder mix to apply during aileron movement 0 = 0 %, 1 = 100%

Range Increment
0 - 1 0.01

KFF_THR2PTCH: Throttle to Pitch Mix

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Throttle to pitch feed-forward gain.

Range Increment
0 - 5 0.01

STAB_PITCH_DOWN: Low throttle pitch down trim

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the amount of down pitch to add in FBWA and AUTOTUNE modes when at low throttle. No down trim is added when throttle is above TRIM_THROTTLE. Below TRIM_THROTTLE downtrim is added in proportion to the amount the throttle is below TRIM_THROTTLE. At zero throttle the full downpitch specified in this parameter is added. This parameter is meant to help keep airspeed up when flying in FBWA mode with low throttle, such as when on a landing approach, without relying on an airspeed sensor. A value of 2 degrees is good for many planes, although a higher value may be needed for high drag aircraft.

Range Increment Units
0 - 15 0.1 Degrees

GLIDE_SLOPE_MIN: Glide slope minimum

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the minimum altitude change for a waypoint before a glide slope will be used instead of an immediate altitude change. The default value is 15 meters, which helps to smooth out waypoint missions where small altitude changes happen near waypoints. If you don’t want glide slopes to be used in missions then you can set this to zero, which will disable glide slope calculations. Otherwise you can set it to a minimum number of meters of altitude error to the destination waypoint before a glide slope will be used to change altitude.

Range Increment Units
0 - 1000 1 meters

GLIDE_SLOPE_THR: Glide slope threshold

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the height above the glide slope the plane may be before rebuilding a glide slope. This is useful for smoothing out an autotakeoff

Range Increment Units
0 - 100 1 meters

STICK_MIXING: Stick Mixing

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

When enabled, this adds user stick input to the control surfaces in auto modes, allowing the user to have some degree of flight control without changing modes. There are two types of stick mixing available. If you set STICK_MIXING to 1 then it will use “fly by wire” mixing, which controls the roll and pitch in the same way that the FBWA mode does. This is the safest option if you usually fly ArduPlane in FBWA or FBWB mode. If you set STICK_MIXING to 2 then it will enable direct mixing mode, which is what the STABILIZE mode uses. That will allow for much more extreme maneuvers while in AUTO mode.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 FBWMixing
2 DirectMixing

AUTO_FBW_STEER: Use FBWA steering in AUTO

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

When enabled this option gives FBWA navigation and steering in AUTO mode. This can be used to allow manual stabilised piloting with waypoint logic for triggering payloads. With this enabled the pilot has the same control over the plane as in FBWA mode, and the normal AUTO navigation is completely disabled. THIS OPTION IS NOT RECOMMENDED FOR NORMAL USE.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
42 Enabled

TKOFF_THR_MINSPD: Takeoff throttle min speed

Minimum GPS ground speed in m/s used by the speed check that un-suppresses throttle in auto-takeoff. This can be be used for catapult launches where you want the motor to engage only after the plane leaves the catapult, but it is preferable to use the TKOFF_THR_MINACC and TKOFF_THR_DELAY parameters for catapult launches due to the errors associated with GPS measurements. For hand launches with a pusher prop it is strongly advised that this parameter be set to a value no less than 4 m/s to provide additional protection against premature motor start. Note that the GPS velocity will lag the real velocity by about 0.5 seconds. The ground speed check is delayed by the TKOFF_THR_DELAY parameter.

Range Increment Units
0 - 30 0.1 m/s

TKOFF_THR_MINACC: Takeoff throttle min acceleration

Minimum forward acceleration in m/s/s before arming the ground speed check in auto-takeoff. This is meant to be used for hand launches. Setting this value to 0 disables the acceleration test which means the ground speed check will always be armed which could allow GPS velocity jumps to start the engine. For hand launches and bungee launches this should be set to around 15.

Range Increment Units
0 - 30 0.1 m/s/s

TKOFF_THR_DELAY: Takeoff throttle delay

This parameter sets the time delay (in 1/10ths of a second) that the ground speed check is delayed after the forward acceleration check controlled by TKOFF_THR_MINACC has passed. For hand launches with pusher propellers it is essential that this is set to a value of no less than 2 (0.2 seconds) to ensure that the aircraft is safely clear of the throwers arm before the motor can start. For bungee launches a larger value can be used (such as 30) to give time for the bungee to release from the aircraft before the motor is started.

Range Increment Units
0 - 127 1 0.1 seconds

TKOFF_TDRAG_ELEV: Takeoff tail dragger elevator

This parameter sets the amount of elevator to apply during the initial stage of a takeoff. It is used to hold the tail wheel of a taildragger on the ground during the initial takeoff stage to give maximum steering. This option should be combined with the TKOFF_TDRAG_SPD1 option and the GROUND_STEER_ALT option along with tuning of the ground steering controller. A value of zero means to bypass the initial “tail hold” stage of takeoff. Set to zero for hand and catapult launch. For tail-draggers you should normally set this to 100, meaning full up elevator during the initial stage of takeoff. For most tricycle undercarriage aircraft a value of zero will work well, but for some tricycle aircraft a small negative value (say around -20 to -30) will apply down elevator which will hold the nose wheel firmly on the ground during initial acceleration. Only use a negative value if you find that the nosewheel doesn’t grip well during takeoff. Too much down elevator on a tricycle undercarriage may cause instability in steering as the plane pivots around the nosewheel. Add down elevator 10 percent at a time.

Range Increment Units
-100 - 100 1 Percent

TKOFF_TDRAG_SPD1: Takeoff tail dragger speed1

This parameter sets the airspeed at which to stop holding the tail down and transition to rudder control of steering on the ground. When TKOFF_TDRAG_SPD1 is reached the pitch of the aircraft will be held level until TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD is reached, at which point the takeoff pitch specified in the mission will be used to “rotate” the pitch for takeoff climb. Set TKOFF_TDRAG_SPD1 to zero to go straight to rotation. This should be set to zero for hand launch and catapult launch. It should also be set to zero for tricycle undercarriages unless you are using the method above to genetly hold the nose wheel down. For tail dragger aircraft it should be set just below the stall speed.

Range Increment Units
0 - 30 0.1 m/s

TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD: Takeoff rotate speed

This parameter sets the airspeed at which the aircraft will “rotate”, setting climb pitch specified in the mission. If TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD is zero then the climb pitch will be used as soon as takeoff is started. For hand launch and catapult launches a TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD of zero should be set. For all ground launches TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD should be set above the stall speed, usually by about 10 to 30 percent

Range Increment Units
0 - 30 0.1 m/s

TKOFF_THR_SLEW: Takeoff throttle slew rate

This parameter sets the slew rate for the throttle during auto takeoff. When this is zero the THR_SLEWRATE parameter is used during takeoff. For rolling takeoffs it can be a good idea to set a lower slewrate for takeoff to give a slower acceleration which can improve ground steering control. The value is a percentage throttle change per second, so a value of 20 means to advance the throttle over 5 seconds on takeoff. Values below 20 are not recommended as they may cause the plane to try to climb out with too little throttle.

Range Increment Units
0 - 127 1 percent

TKOFF_PLIM_SEC: Takeoff pitch limit reduction

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter reduces the pitch minimum limit of an auto-takeoff just a few seconds before it reaches the target altitude. This reduces overshoot by allowing the flight controller to start leveling off a few seconds before reaching the target height. When set to zero, the mission pitch min is enforced all the way to and through the target altitude, otherwise the pitch min slowly reduces to zero in the final segment. This is the pitch_min, not the demand. The flight controller should still be commanding to gain altitude to finish the takeoff but with this param it is not forcing it higher than it wants to be.

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 0.5 seconds

TKOFF_FLAP_PCNT: Takeoff flap percentage

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The amount of flaps (as a percentage) to apply in automatic takeoff

Range Units
0 - 100 Percent

FBWA_TDRAG_CHAN: FBWA taildragger channel

This is a RC input channel which when it goes above 1700 enables FBWA taildragger takeoff mode. It should be assigned to a momentary switch. Once this feature is enabled it will stay enabled until the aircraft goes above TKOFF_TDRAG_SPD1 airspeed, changes mode, or the pitch goes above the initial pitch when this is engaged or goes below 0 pitch. When enabled the elevator will be forced to TKOFF_TDRAG_ELEV. This option allows for easier takeoffs on taildraggers in FBWA mode, and also makes it easier to test auto-takeoff steering handling in FBWA. Setting it to 0 disables this option.

LEVEL_ROLL_LIMIT: Level flight roll limit

This controls the maximum bank angle in degrees during flight modes where level flight is desired, such as in the final stages of landing, and during auto takeoff. This should be a small angle (such as 5 degrees) to prevent a wing hitting the runway during takeoff or landing. Setting this to zero will completely disable heading hold on auto takeoff and final landing approach.

Range Increment Units
0 - 45 1 degrees

USE_REV_THRUST: Bitmask for when to allow negative reverse thrust

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Typically THR_MIN will be clipped to zero unless reverse thrust is available. Since you may not want negative thrust available at all times this bitmask allows THR_MIN to go below 0 while executing certain auto-mission commands.

Bitmask
Bit Meaning
0 AUTO_ALWAYS
1 AUTO_LAND
2 AUTO_LOITER_TO_ALT
3 AUTO_LOITER_ALL
4 AUTO_WAYPOINTS
5 LOITER
6 RTL
7 CIRCLE
8 CRUISE
9 FBWB
10 GUIDED

ALT_MIX: GPS to Baro Mix

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The percent of mixing between GPS altitude and baro altitude. 0 = 100% gps, 1 = 100% baro. It is highly recommend that you not change this from the default of 1, as GPS altitude is notoriously unreliable. The only time I would recommend changing this is if you have a high altitude enabled GPS, and you are dropping a plane from a high altitude balloon many kilometers off the ground.

Range Increment Units
0 - 1 0.1 Percent

ALT_CTRL_ALG: Altitude control algorithm

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets what algorithm will be used for altitude control. The default is zero, which selects the most appropriate algorithm for your airframe. Currently the default is to use TECS (total energy control system). From time to time we will add other experimental altitude control algorithms which will be selected using this parameter.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Automatic

ALT_OFFSET: Altitude offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is added to the target altitude in automatic flight. It can be used to add a global altitude offset to a mission

Range Increment Units
-32767 - 32767 1 Meters

WP_RADIUS: Waypoint Radius

Defines the maximum distance from a waypoint that when crossed indicates the waypoint may be complete. To avoid the aircraft looping around the waypoint in case it misses by more than the WP_RADIUS an additional check is made to see if the aircraft has crossed a “finish line” passing through the waypoint and perpendicular to the flight path from the previous waypoint. If that finish line is crossed then the waypoint is considered complete. Note that the navigation controller may decide to turn later than WP_RADIUS before a waypoint, based on how sharp the turn is and the speed of the aircraft. It is safe to set WP_RADIUS much larger than the usual turn radius of your aircraft and the navigation controller will work out when to turn. If you set WP_RADIUS too small then you will tend to overshoot the turns.

Range Increment Units
1 - 32767 1 Meters

WP_MAX_RADIUS: Waypoint Maximum Radius

Sets the maximum distance to a waypoint for the waypoint to be considered complete. This overrides the “cross the finish line” logic that is normally used to consider a waypoint complete. For normal AUTO behaviour this parameter should be set to zero. Using a non-zero value is only recommended when it is critical that the aircraft does approach within the given radius, and should loop around until it has done so. This can cause the aircraft to loop forever if its turn radius is greater than the maximum radius set.

Range Increment Units
0 - 32767 1 Meters

WP_LOITER_RAD: Waypoint Loiter Radius

Defines the distance from the waypoint center, the plane will maintain during a loiter. If you set this value to a negative number then the default loiter direction will be counter-clockwise instead of clockwise.

Range Increment Units
-32767 - 32767 1 Meters

RTL_RADIUS: RTL loiter radius

Defines the radius of the loiter circle when in RTL mode. If this is zero then WP_LOITER_RAD is used. If the radius is negative then a counter-clockwise is used. If positive then a clockwise loiter is used.

Range Increment Units
-32767 - 32767 1 Meters

FENCE_ACTION: Action on geofence breach

What to do on fence breach. If this is set to 0 then no action is taken, and geofencing is disabled. If this is set to 1 then the plane will enter GUIDED mode, with the target waypoint as the fence return point. If this is set to 2 then the fence breach is reported to the ground station, but no other action is taken. If set to 3 then the plane enters guided mode but the pilot retains manual throttle control. If set to 4 the plane enters RTL mode, with the target waypoint as the closest rally point (or home point if there are no rally points).

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 GuidedMode
2 ReportOnly
3 GuidedModeThrPass
4 RTL_Mode

FENCE_TOTAL: Fence Total

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Number of geofence points currently loaded

FENCE_CHANNEL: Fence Channel

RC Channel to use to enable geofence. PWM input above 1750 enables the geofence

FENCE_MINALT: Fence Minimum Altitude

Minimum altitude allowed before geofence triggers

Range Increment Units
0 - 32767 1 meters

FENCE_MAXALT: Fence Maximum Altitude

Maximum altitude allowed before geofence triggers

Range Increment Units
0 - 32767 1 meters

FENCE_RETALT: Fence Return Altitude

Altitude the aircraft will transit to when a fence breach occurs. If FENCE_RETALT is <= 0 then the midpoint between FENCE_MAXALT and FENCE_MINALT is used, unless FENCE_MAXALT < FENCE_MINALT. If FENCE_MAXALT < FENCE_MINALT AND FENCE_RETALT is <= 0 then ALT_HOLD_RTL is the altitude used on a fence breach.

Range Increment Units
0 - 32767 1 meters

FENCE_AUTOENABLE: Fence automatic enable

When set to 1, geofence automatically enables after an auto takeoff and automatically disables at the beginning of an auto landing. When on the ground before takeoff the fence is disabled. When set to 2, the fence autoenables after an auto takeoff, but only disables the fence floor during landing. It is highly recommended to not use this option for line of sight flying and use a fence enable channel instead.

Values
Value Meaning
0 NoAutoEnable
1 AutoEnable
2 AutoEnableDisableFloorOnly

FENCE_RET_RALLY: Fence Return to Rally

When set to 1: on fence breach the plane will return to the nearest rally point rather than the fence return point. If no rally points have been defined the plane will return to the home point.

Values
Value Meaning
0 FenceReturnPoint
1 NearestRallyPoint

STALL_PREVENTION: Enable stall prevention

This controls the use of stall prevention techniques, including roll limits at low speed and raising the minimum airspeed in turns. The limits are based on the aerodynamic load factor of a banked turn. This option relies on the correct ARSPD_FBW_MIN value being set correctly. Note that if you don’t have an airspeed sensor then stall prevention will use an airspeed estimate based on the ground speed plus a wind estimate taken from the response of the autopilot banked turns. That synthetic airspeed estimate may be inaccurate, so you should not assume that stall prevention with no airspeed sensor will be effective.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

ARSPD_FBW_MIN: Minimum Airspeed

This is the minimum airspeed you want to fly at in modes where the autopilot controls the airspeed. This should be set to a value around 20% higher than the level flight stall speed for the airframe. This value is also used in the STALL_PREVENTION code.

Range Increment Units
5 - 100 1 m/s

ARSPD_FBW_MAX: Maximum Airspeed

This is the maximum airspeed that you want to allow for your airframe in auto-throttle modes. You should ensure that this value is sufficiently above the ARSPD_FBW_MIN value to allow for a sufficient flight envelope to accurately control altitude using airspeed. A value at least 50% above ARSPD_FBW_MIN is recommended.

Range Increment Units
5 - 100 1 m/s

FBWB_ELEV_REV: Fly By Wire elevator reverse

Reverse sense of elevator in FBWB and CRUISE modes. When set to 0 up elevator (pulling back on the stick) means to lower altitude. When set to 1, up elevator means to raise altitude.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

TERRAIN_FOLLOW: Use terrain following

This enables terrain following for CRUISE mode, FBWB mode, RTL and for rally points. To use this option you also need to set TERRAIN_ENABLE to 1, which enables terrain data fetching from the GCS, and you need to have a GCS that supports sending terrain data to the aircraft. When terrain following is enabled then CRUISE and FBWB mode will hold height above terrain rather than height above home. In RTL the return to launch altitude will be considered to be a height above the terrain. Rally point altitudes will be taken as height above the terrain. This option does not affect mission items, which have a per-waypoint flag for whether they are height above home or height above the terrain. To use terrain following missions you need a ground station which can set the waypoint type to be a terrain height waypoint when creating the mission.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

TERRAIN_LOOKAHD: Terrain lookahead

This controls how far ahead the terrain following code looks to ensure it stays above upcoming terrain. A value of zero means no lookahead, so the controller will track only the terrain directly below the aircraft. The lookahead will never extend beyond the next waypoint when in AUTO mode.

Range Units
0 - 10000 meters

FBWB_CLIMB_RATE: Fly By Wire B altitude change rate

This sets the rate in m/s at which FBWB and CRUISE modes will change its target altitude for full elevator deflection. Note that the actual climb rate of the aircraft can be lower than this, depending on your airspeed and throttle control settings. If you have this parameter set to the default value of 2.0, then holding the elevator at maximum deflection for 10 seconds would change the target altitude by 20 meters.

Range Increment Units
1 - 10 0.1 m/s

THR_MIN: Minimum Throttle

The minimum throttle setting (as a percentage) which the autopilot will apply. For the final stage of an automatic landing this is always zero. If your ESC supports reverse, use a negative value to configure for reverse thrust.

Range Increment Units
-100 - 100 1 Percent

THR_MAX: Maximum Throttle

The maximum throttle setting (as a percentage) which the autopilot will apply.

Range Increment Units
0 - 100 1 Percent

TKOFF_THR_MAX: Maximum Throttle for takeoff

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The maximum throttle setting during automatic takeoff. If this is zero then THR_MAX is used for takeoff as well.

Range Increment Units
0 - 100 1 Percent

THR_SLEWRATE: Throttle slew rate

maximum percentage change in throttle per second. A setting of 10 means to not change the throttle by more than 10% of the full throttle range in one second.

Range Increment Units
0 - 127 1 Percent

FLAP_SLEWRATE: Flap slew rate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

maximum percentage change in flap output per second. A setting of 25 means to not change the flap by more than 25% of the full flap range in one second. A value of 0 means no rate limiting.

Range Increment Units
0 - 100 1 Percent

THR_SUPP_MAN: Throttle suppress manual passthru

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

When throttle is suppressed in auto mode it is normally forced to zero. If you enable this option, then while suppressed it will be manual throttle. This is useful on petrol engines to hold the idle throttle manually while waiting for takeoff

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

THR_PASS_STAB: Throttle passthru in stabilize

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

If this is set then when in STABILIZE, FBWA or ACRO modes the throttle is a direct passthru from the transmitter. This means the THR_MIN and THR_MAX settings are not used in these modes. This is useful for petrol engines where you setup a throttle cut switch that suppresses the throttle below the normal minimum.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

THR_FAILSAFE: Throttle Failsafe Enable

The throttle failsafe allows you to configure a software failsafe activated by a setting on the throttle input channel

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

THR_FS_VALUE: Throttle Failsafe Value

The PWM level on channel 3 below which throttle failsafe triggers

Range Increment
925 - 2200 1

TRIM_THROTTLE: Throttle cruise percentage

The target percentage of throttle to apply for normal flight

Range Increment Units
0 - 100 1 Percent

THROTTLE_NUDGE: Throttle nudge enable

When enabled, this uses the throttle input in auto-throttle modes to ‘nudge’ the throttle or airspeed to higher or lower values. When you have an airspeed sensor the nudge affects the target airspeed, so that throttle inputs above 50% will increase the target airspeed from TRIM_ARSPD_CM up to a maximum of ARSPD_FBW_MAX. When no airspeed sensor is enabled the throttle nudge will push up the target throttle for throttle inputs above 50%.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

FS_SHORT_ACTN: Short failsafe action

The action to take on a short (FS_SHORT_TIMEOUT) failsafe event. A short failsafe even can be triggered either by loss of RC control (see THR_FS_VALUE) or by loss of GCS control (see FS_GCS_ENABL). If in CIRCLE or RTL mode this parameter is ignored. A short failsafe event in stabilization and manual modes will cause an change to CIRCLE mode if FS_SHORT_ACTN is 0 or 1, and a change to FBWA mode if FS_SHORT_ACTN is 2. In all other modes (AUTO, GUIDED and LOITER) a short failsafe event will cause no mode change is FS_SHORT_ACTN is set to 0, will cause a change to CIRCLE mode if set to 1 and will change to FBWA mode if set to 2. Please see the documentation for FS_LONG_ACTN for the behaviour after FS_LONG_TIMEOUT seconds of failsafe.

Values
Value Meaning
0 CIRCLE/no change(if already in AUTO|GUIDED|LOITER)
1 CIRCLE
2 FBWA

FS_SHORT_TIMEOUT: Short failsafe timeout

The time in seconds that a failsafe condition has to persist before a short failsafe event will occur. This defaults to 1.5 seconds

Range Increment Units
1 - 100 0.5 seconds

FS_LONG_ACTN: Long failsafe action

The action to take on a long (FS_LONG_TIMEOUT seconds) failsafe event. If the aircraft was in a stabilization or manual mode when failsafe started and a long failsafe occurs then it will change to RTL mode if FS_LONG_ACTN is 0 or 1, and will change to FBWA if FS_LONG_ACTN is set to 2. If the aircraft was in an auto mode (such as AUTO or GUIDED) when the failsafe started then it will continue in the auto mode if FS_LONG_ACTN is set to 0, will change to RTL mode if FS_LONG_ACTN is set to 1 and will change to FBWA mode if FS_LONG_ACTN is set to 2. If FS_LONG_ACTION is set to 3, the parachute will be deployed (make sure the chute is configured and enabled).

Values
Value Meaning
0 Continue
1 ReturnToLaunch
2 Glide
3 Deploy Parachute

FS_LONG_TIMEOUT: Long failsafe timeout

The time in seconds that a failsafe condition has to persist before a long failsafe event will occur. This defaults to 5 seconds.

Range Increment Units
1 - 300 0.5 seconds

FS_BATT_VOLTAGE: Failsafe battery voltage

Battery voltage to trigger failsafe. Set to 0 to disable battery voltage failsafe. If the battery voltage drops below this voltage continuously for 10 seconds then the plane will switch to RTL mode.

Increment Units
0.1 Volts

FS_BATT_MAH: Failsafe battery milliAmpHours

Battery capacity remaining to trigger failsafe. Set to 0 to disable battery remaining failsafe. If the battery remaining drops below this level then the plane will switch to RTL mode immediately.

Increment Units
50 mAh

FS_GCS_ENABL: GCS failsafe enable

Enable ground control station telemetry failsafe. Failsafe will trigger after FS_LONG_TIMEOUT seconds of no MAVLink heartbeat messages. There are two possible enabled settings. Seeing FS_GCS_ENABL to 1 means that GCS failsafe will be triggered when the aircraft has not received a MAVLink HEARTBEAT message. Setting FS_GCS_ENABL to 2 means that GCS failsafe will be triggered on either a loss of HEARTBEAT messages, or a RADIO_STATUS message from a MAVLink enabled 3DR radio indicating that the ground station is not receiving status updates from the aircraft, which is indicated by the RADIO_STATUS.remrssi field being zero (this may happen if you have a one way link due to asymmetric noise on the ground station and aircraft radios).Setting FS_GCS_ENABL to 3 means that GCS failsafe will be triggered by Heartbeat(like option one), but only in AUTO mode. WARNING: Enabling this option opens up the possibility of your plane going into failsafe mode and running the motor on the ground it it loses contact with your ground station. If this option is enabled on an electric plane then you should enable ARMING_REQUIRED.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Heartbeat
2 HeartbeatAndREMRSSI
3 HeartbeatAndAUTO

FLTMODE_CH: Flightmode channel

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC Channel to use for flight mode control

FLTMODE1: FlightMode1

Flight mode for switch position 1 (910 to 1230 and above 2049)

Values
Value Meaning
0 Manual
1 CIRCLE
2 STABILIZE
3 TRAINING
4 ACRO
5 FBWA
6 FBWB
7 CRUISE
8 AUTOTUNE
10 Auto
11 RTL
12 Loiter
14 AVOID_ADSB
15 Guided
17 QSTABILIZE
18 QHOVER
19 QLOITER
20 QLAND
21 QRTL

FLTMODE2: FlightMode2

Flight mode for switch position 2 (1231 to 1360)

Values
Value Meaning
0 Manual
1 CIRCLE
2 STABILIZE
3 TRAINING
4 ACRO
5 FBWA
6 FBWB
7 CRUISE
8 AUTOTUNE
10 Auto
11 RTL
12 Loiter
14 AVOID_ADSB
15 Guided
17 QSTABILIZE
18 QHOVER
19 QLOITER
20 QLAND
21 QRTL

FLTMODE3: FlightMode3

Flight mode for switch position 3 (1361 to 1490)

Values
Value Meaning
0 Manual
1 CIRCLE
2 STABILIZE
3 TRAINING
4 ACRO
5 FBWA
6 FBWB
7 CRUISE
8 AUTOTUNE
10 Auto
11 RTL
12 Loiter
14 AVOID_ADSB
15 Guided
17 QSTABILIZE
18 QHOVER
19 QLOITER
20 QLAND
21 QRTL

FLTMODE4: FlightMode4

Flight mode for switch position 4 (1491 to 1620)

Values
Value Meaning
0 Manual
1 CIRCLE
2 STABILIZE
3 TRAINING
4 ACRO
5 FBWA
6 FBWB
7 CRUISE
8 AUTOTUNE
10 Auto
11 RTL
12 Loiter
14 AVOID_ADSB
15 Guided
17 QSTABILIZE
18 QHOVER
19 QLOITER
20 QLAND
21 QRTL

FLTMODE5: FlightMode5

Flight mode for switch position 5 (1621 to 1749)

Values
Value Meaning
0 Manual
1 CIRCLE
2 STABILIZE
3 TRAINING
4 ACRO
5 FBWA
6 FBWB
7 CRUISE
8 AUTOTUNE
10 Auto
11 RTL
12 Loiter
14 AVOID_ADSB
15 Guided
17 QSTABILIZE
18 QHOVER
19 QLOITER
20 QLAND
21 QRTL

FLTMODE6: FlightMode6

Flight mode for switch position 6 (1750 to 2049)

Values
Value Meaning
0 Manual
1 CIRCLE
2 STABILIZE
3 TRAINING
4 ACRO
5 FBWA
6 FBWB
7 CRUISE
8 AUTOTUNE
10 Auto
11 RTL
12 Loiter
14 AVOID_ADSB
15 Guided
17 QSTABILIZE
18 QHOVER
19 QLOITER
20 QLAND
21 QRTL

INITIAL_MODE: Initial flight mode

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This selects the mode to start in on boot. This is useful for when you want to start in AUTO mode on boot without a receiver.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Manual
1 CIRCLE
2 STABILIZE
3 TRAINING
4 ACRO
5 FBWA
6 FBWB
7 CRUISE
8 AUTOTUNE
10 Auto
11 RTL
12 Loiter
14 AVOID_ADSB
15 Guided
17 QSTABILIZE
18 QHOVER
19 QLOITER
20 QLAND
21 QRTL

LIM_ROLL_CD: Maximum Bank Angle

The maximum commanded bank angle in either direction

Range Increment Units
0 - 9000 1 centi-Degrees

LIM_PITCH_MAX: Maximum Pitch Angle

The maximum commanded pitch up angle

Range Increment Units
0 - 9000 1 centi-Degrees

LIM_PITCH_MIN: Minimum Pitch Angle

The minimum commanded pitch down angle

Range Increment Units
-9000 - 0 1 centi-Degrees

ACRO_ROLL_RATE: ACRO mode roll rate

The maximum roll rate at full stick deflection in ACRO mode

Range Increment Units
10 - 500 1 degrees/second

ACRO_PITCH_RATE: ACRO mode pitch rate

The maximum pitch rate at full stick deflection in ACRO mode

Range Increment Units
10 - 500 1 degrees/second

ACRO_LOCKING: ACRO mode attitude locking

Enable attitude locking when sticks are released

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

GROUND_STEER_ALT: Ground steer altitude

Altitude at which to use the ground steering controller on the rudder. If non-zero then the STEER2SRV controller will be used to control the rudder for altitudes within this limit of the home altitude.

Range Increment Units
-100 - 100 0.1 Meters

GROUND_STEER_DPS: Ground steer rate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Ground steering rate in degrees per second for full rudder stick deflection

Range Increment Units
10 - 360 1 degrees/second

TRIM_AUTO: Automatic trim adjustment

Set RC trim PWM levels to current levels when switching away from manual mode. When this option is enabled and you change from MANUAL to any other mode then the APM will take the current position of the control sticks as the trim values for aileron, elevator and rudder. It will use those to set RC1_TRIM, RC2_TRIM and RC4_TRIM. This option is disabled by default as if a pilot is not aware of this option and changes from MANUAL to another mode while control inputs are not centered then the trim could be changed to a dangerously bad value. You can enable this option to assist with trimming your plane, by enabling it before takeoff then switching briefly to MANUAL in flight, and seeing how the plane reacts. You can then switch back to FBWA, trim the surfaces then again test MANUAL mode. Each time you switch from MANUAL the APM will take your control inputs as the new trim. After you have good trim on your aircraft you can disable TRIM_AUTO for future flights.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

ELEVON_MIXING: Elevon mixing

This enables an older form of elevon mixing which is now deprecated. Please see the ELEVON_OUTPUT option for setting up elevons. The ELEVON_MIXING option should be set to 0 for elevon planes except for backwards compatibility with older setups.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

ELEVON_REVERSE: Elevon reverse

Reverse elevon mixing

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

ELEVON_CH1_REV: Elevon reverse

Reverse elevon channel 1

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Disabled
1 Enabled

ELEVON_CH2_REV: Elevon reverse

Reverse elevon channel 2

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Disabled
1 Enabled

VTAIL_OUTPUT: VTail output

Enable VTail output in software. If enabled then the APM will provide software VTail mixing on the elevator and rudder channels. There are 8 different mixing modes available, which refer to the 8 ways the elevator can be mapped to the two VTail servos. Please also see the MIXING_GAIN parameter for the output gain of the mixer.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 UpUp
2 UpDown
3 DownUp
4 DownDown
5 UpUpSwap
6 UpDownSwap
7 DownUpSwap
8 DownDownSwap

ELEVON_OUTPUT: Elevon output

Enable software elevon output mixer. If enabled then the APM will provide software elevon mixing on the aileron and elevator channels. There are 8 different mixing modes available, which refer to the 8 ways the elevator can be mapped to the two elevon servos. Please also see the MIXING_GAIN parameter for the output gain of the mixer.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 UpUp
2 UpDown
3 DownUp
4 DownDown
5 UpUpSwap
6 UpDownSwap
7 DownUpSwap
8 DownDownSwap

MIXING_GAIN: Mixing Gain

The gain for the Vtail and elevon output mixers. The default is 0.5, which ensures that the mixer doesn’t saturate, allowing both input channels to go to extremes while retaining control over the output. Hardware mixers often have a 1.0 gain, which gives more servo throw, but can saturate. If you don’t have enough throw on your servos with VTAIL_OUTPUT or ELEVON_OUTPUT enabled then you can raise the gain using MIXING_GAIN. The mixer allows outputs in the range 900 to 2100 microseconds.

Range
0.5 - 1.2

RUDDER_ONLY: Rudder only aircraft

Enable rudder only mode. The rudder will control attitude in attitude controlled modes (such as FBWA). You should setup your transmitter to send roll stick inputs to the RCMAP_YAW channel (normally channel 4). The rudder servo should be attached to the RCMAP_YAW channel as well. Note that automatic ground steering will be disabled for rudder only aircraft. You should also set KFF_RDDRMIX to 1.0. You will also need to setup the YAW2SRV_DAMP yaw damping appropriately for your aircraft. A value of 0.5 for YAW2SRV_DAMP is a good starting point.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

MIXING_OFFSET: Mixing Offset

The offset for the Vtail and elevon output mixers, as a percentage. This can be used in combination with MIXING_GAIN to configure how the control surfaces respond to input. The response to aileron or elevator input can be increased by setting this parameter to a positive or negative value. A common usage is to enter a positive value to increase the aileron response of the elevons of a flying wing. The default value of zero will leave the aileron-input response equal to the elevator-input response.

Range Units
-1000 - 1000 percent

DSPOILR_RUD_RATE: Differential spoilers rudder rate

Sets the amount of deflection that the rudder output will apply to the differential spoilers, as a percentage. The default value of 100 results in full rudder applying full deflection. A value of 0 will result in the differential spoilers exactly following the elevons (no rudder effect).

Range Units
-1000 - 1000 percent

SYS_NUM_RESETS: Num Resets

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Number of APM board resets

LOG_BITMASK: Log bitmask

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Bitmap of what log types to enable in dataflash. This values is made up of the sum of each of the log types you want to be saved on dataflash. On a PX4 or Pixhawk the large storage size of a microSD card means it is usually best just to enable all log types by setting this to 65535. On APM2 the smaller 4 MByte dataflash means you need to be more selective in your logging or you may run out of log space while flying (in which case it will wrap and overwrite the start of the log). The individual bits are ATTITUDE_FAST=1, ATTITUDE_MEDIUM=2, GPS=4, PerformanceMonitoring=8, ControlTuning=16, NavigationTuning=32, Mode=64, IMU=128, Commands=256, Battery=512, Compass=1024, TECS=2048, Camera=4096, RCandServo=8192, Sonar=16384, Arming=32768, FullLogs=65535

Bitmask Values
Bit Meaning
0 ATTITUDE_FAST
1 ATTITUDE_MED
2 GPS
3 PM
4 CTUN
5 NTUN
6 MODE
7 IMU
8 CMD
9 CURRENT
10 COMPASS
11 TECS
12 CAMERA
13 RC
14 SONAR
15 ARM/DISARM
19 IMU_RAW
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
65535 PX4/Pixhawk-Default

RST_SWITCH_CH: Reset Switch Channel

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC channel to use to reset to last flight mode after geofence takeover.

RST_MISSION_CH: Reset Mission Channel

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC channel to use to reset the mission to the first waypoint. When this channel goes above 1750 the mission is reset. Set RST_MISSION_CH to 0 to disable.

TRIM_ARSPD_CM: Target airspeed

Airspeed in cm/s to aim for when airspeed is enabled in auto mode. This is a calibrated (apparent) airspeed.

Units
cm/s

SCALING_SPEED: speed used for speed scaling calculations

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Airspeed in m/s to use when calculating surface speed scaling. Note that changing this value will affect all PID values

Units
m/s

MIN_GNDSPD_CM: Minimum ground speed

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Minimum ground speed in cm/s when under airspeed control

Units
cm/s

TRIM_PITCH_CD: Pitch angle offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

offset to add to pitch - used for in-flight pitch trimming. It is recommended that instead of using this parameter you level your plane correctly on the ground for good flight attitude.

Units
centi-Degrees

ALT_HOLD_RTL: RTL altitude

Return to launch target altitude. This is the relative altitude the plane will aim for and loiter at when returning home. If this is negative (usually -1) then the plane will use the current altitude at the time of entering RTL. Note that when transiting to a Rally Point the altitude of the Rally Point is used instead of ALT_HOLD_RTL.

Units
centimeters

ALT_HOLD_FBWCM: Minimum altitude for FBWB mode

This is the minimum altitude in centimeters that FBWB and CRUISE modes will allow. If you attempt to descend below this altitude then the plane will level off. A value of zero means no limit.

Units
centimeters

MAG_ENABLE: Enable Compass

Setting this to Enabled(1) will enable the compass. Setting this to Disabled(0) will disable the compass. Note that this is separate from COMPASS_USE. This will enable the low level senor, and will enable logging of magnetometer data. To use the compass for navigation you must also set COMPASS_USE to 1.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

FLAP_IN_CHANNEL: Flap input channel

An RC input channel to use for flaps control. If this is set to a RC channel number then that channel will be used for manual flaps control. When enabled, the percentage of flaps is taken as the percentage travel from the TRIM value of the channel to the MIN value of the channel. A value above the TRIM values will give inverse flaps (spoilers). This option needs to be enabled in conjunction with a FUNCTION setting on an output channel to one of the flap functions. When a FLAP_IN_CHANNEL is combined with auto-flaps the higher of the two flap percentages is taken. You must also enable a FLAPERON_OUTPUT flaperon mixer setting if using flaperons.

FLAPERON_OUTPUT: Flaperon output

Enable flaperon output in software. If enabled then the APM will provide software flaperon mixing on the FLAPERON1 and FLAPERON2 output channels specified using the FUNCTION on two auxiliary channels. There are 8 different mixing modes available, which refer to the 8 ways the flap and aileron outputs can be mapped to the two flaperon servos. Please also see the MIXING_GAIN parameter for the output gain of the mixer. FLAPERON_OUTPUT cannot be combined with ELEVON_OUTPUT or ELEVON_MIXING.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 UpUp
2 UpDown
3 DownUp
4 DownDown
5 UpUpSwap
6 UpDownSwap
7 DownUpSwap
8 DownDownSwap

FLAP_1_PERCNT: Flap 1 percentage

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The percentage change in flap position when FLAP_1_SPEED is reached. Use zero to disable flaps

Range Units
0 - 100 Percent

FLAP_1_SPEED: Flap 1 speed

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The speed in meters per second at which to engage FLAP_1_PERCENT of flaps. Note that FLAP_1_SPEED should be greater than or equal to FLAP_2_SPEED

Range Increment Units
0 - 100 1 m/s

FLAP_2_PERCNT: Flap 2 percentage

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The percentage change in flap position when FLAP_2_SPEED is reached. Use zero to disable flaps

Range Units
0 - 100 Percent

FLAP_2_SPEED: Flap 2 speed

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The speed in meters per second at which to engage FLAP_2_PERCENT of flaps. Note that FLAP_1_SPEED should be greater than or equal to FLAP_2_SPEED

Range Increment Units
0 - 100 1 m/s

OVERRIDE_CHAN: PX4IO override channel

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

If set to a non-zero value then this is an RC input channel number to use for giving PX4IO manual control in case the main FMU microcontroller on a PX4 or Pixhawk fails. When this RC input channel goes above 1750 the FMU microcontroller will no longer be involved in controlling the servos and instead the PX4IO microcontroller will directly control the servos. Note that PX4IO manual control will be automatically activated if the FMU crashes for any reason. This parameter allows you to test for correct manual behaviour without actually crashing the FMU. This parameter is can be set to a non-zero value either for ground testing purposes or for giving the effect of an external override control board. Please also see the docs on OVERRIDE_SAFETY. Note that you may set OVERRIDE_CHAN to the same channel as FLTMODE_CH to get PX4IO based override when in flight mode 6. Note that when override is triggered due to a FMU crash the 6 auxiliary output channels on Pixhawk will no longer be updated, so all the flight controls you need must be assigned to the first 8 channels.

OVERRIDE_SAFETY: PX4IO override safety switch

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls whether the safety switch is turned off when you activate override with OVERRIDE_CHAN. When set to 1 the safety switch is de-activated (activating the servos) then a PX4IO override is triggered. In that case the safety remains de-activated after override is disabled. If OVERRIDE_SAFETTY is set to 0 then the safety switch state does not change. Note that regardless of the value of this parameter the servos will be active while override is active.

INVERTEDFLT_CH: Inverted flight channel

A RC input channel number to enable inverted flight. If this is non-zero then the APM will monitor the corresponding RC input channel and will enable inverted flight when the channel goes above 1750.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Channel1
2 Channel2
3 Channel3
4 Channel4
5 Channel5
6 Channel6
7 Channel7
8 Channel8

HIL_MODE: HIL mode enable

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enables and disables hardware in the loop mode. If HIL_MODE is 1 then on the next reboot all sensors are replaced with HIL sensors which come from the GCS.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

HIL_SERVOS: HIL Servos enable

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls whether real servo controls are used in HIL mode. If you enable this then the APM will control the real servos in HIL mode. If disabled it will report servo values, but will not output to the real servos. Be careful that your motor and propeller are not connected if you enable this option.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

HIL_ERR_LIMIT: Limit of error in HIL attitude before reset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the maximum error in degrees on any axis before HIL will reset the DCM attitude to match the HIL_STATE attitude. This limit will prevent poor timing on HIL from causing a major attitude error. If the value is zero then no limit applies.

Range Increment Units
0 - 90 0.1 degrees

RTL_AUTOLAND: RTL auto land

Automatically begin landing sequence after arriving at RTL location. This requires the addition of a DO_LAND_START mission item, which acts as a marker for the start of a landing sequence. The closest landing sequence will be chosen to the current location.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disable
1 Enable - go HOME then land
2 Enable - go directly to landing sequence

RC_TRIM_AT_START: RC Trims auto set at start.

Automatically set roll/pitch trim from Tx at ground start. This makes the assumption that the RC transmitter has not been altered since trims were last captured.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disable
1 Enable

CRASH_ACC_THRESH: Crash Deceleration Threshold

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

X-Axis deceleration threshold to notify the crash detector that there was a possible impact which helps disarm the motor quickly after a crash. This value should be much higher than normal negative x-axis forces during normal flight, check flight log files to determine the average IMU.x values for your aircraft and motor type. Higher value means less sensative (triggers on higher impact). For electric planes that don’t vibrate much during fight a value of 25 is good (that’s about 2.5G). For petrol/nitro planes you’ll want a higher value. Set to 0 to disable the collision detector.

Values Units
10 127 m/s/s

CRASH_DETECT: Crash Detection

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Automatically detect a crash during AUTO flight and perform the bitmask selected action(s). Disarm will turn off motor for safety and to help against burning out ESC and motor. Setting the mode to manual will help save the servos from burning out by overexerting if the aircraft crashed in an odd orientation such as upsidedown. Set to 0 to disable crash detection.

Bitmask
Bit Meaning
0 Disarm

CHUTE_CHAN: Parachute release channel

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

If set to a non-zero value then this is an RC input channel number to use for manually releasing the parachute. When this channel goes above 1700 the parachute will be released

RNGFND_LANDING: Enable rangefinder for landing

This enables the use of a rangefinder for automatic landing. The rangefinder will be used both on the landing approach and for final flare

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

SERIAL Parameters

SERIAL0_BAUD: Serial0 baud rate

The baud rate used on the USB console. The APM2 can support all baudrates up to 115, and also can support 500. The PX4 can support rates of up to 1500. If you setup a rate you cannot support on APM2 and then can’t connect to your board you should load a firmware from a different vehicle type. That will reset all your parameters to defaults.

Values
Value Meaning
1 1200
2 2400
4 4800
9 9600
19 19200
38 38400
57 57600
111 111100
115 115200
500 500000
921 921600
1500 1500000

SERIAL0_PROTOCOL: Console protocol selection

Control what protocol to use on the console.

Values
Value Meaning
1 MAVlink1
2 MAVLink2

SERIAL1_PROTOCOL: Telem1 protocol selection

Control what protocol to use on the Telem1 port. Note that the Frsky options require external converter hardware. See the wiki for details.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 None
1 MAVLink1
2 MAVLink2
3 Frsky D
4 Frsky SPort
5 GPS
7 Alexmos Gimbal Serial
8 SToRM32 Gimbal Serial
9 Lidar
10 FrSky SPort Passthrough (OpenTX)
11 Lidar360
12 Aerotenna uLanding
13 Pozyx Beacon

SERIAL1_BAUD: Telem1 Baud Rate

The baud rate used on the Telem1 port. The APM2 can support all baudrates up to 115, and also can support 500. The PX4 can support rates of up to 1500. If you setup a rate you cannot support on APM2 and then can’t connect to your board you should load a firmware from a different vehicle type. That will reset all your parameters to defaults.

Values
Value Meaning
1 1200
2 2400
4 4800
9 9600
19 19200
38 38400
57 57600
111 111100
115 115200
500 500000
921 921600
1500 1500000

SERIAL2_PROTOCOL: Telemetry 2 protocol selection

Control what protocol to use on the Telem2 port. Note that the Frsky options require external converter hardware. See the wiki for details.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 None
1 MAVLink1
2 MAVLink2
3 Frsky D
4 Frsky SPort
5 GPS
7 Alexmos Gimbal Serial
8 SToRM32 Gimbal Serial
9 Lidar
10 FrSky SPort Passthrough (OpenTX)
11 Lidar360
12 Aerotenna uLanding
13 Pozyx Beacon

SERIAL2_BAUD: Telemetry 2 Baud Rate

The baud rate of the Telem2 port. The APM2 can support all baudrates up to 115, and also can support 500. The PX4 can support rates of up to 1500. If you setup a rate you cannot support on APM2 and then can’t connect to your board you should load a firmware from a different vehicle type. That will reset all your parameters to defaults.

Values
Value Meaning
1 1200
2 2400
4 4800
9 9600
19 19200
38 38400
57 57600
111 111100
115 115200
500 500000
921 921600
1500 1500000

SERIAL3_PROTOCOL: Serial 3 (GPS) protocol selection

Control what protocol Serial 3 (GPS) should be used for. Note that the Frsky options require external converter hardware. See the wiki for details.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 None
1 MAVLink1
2 MAVLink2
3 Frsky D
4 Frsky SPort
5 GPS
7 Alexmos Gimbal Serial
8 SToRM32 Gimbal Serial
9 Lidar
10 FrSky SPort Passthrough (OpenTX)
11 Lidar360
12 Aerotenna uLanding
13 Pozyx Beacon

SERIAL3_BAUD: Serial 3 (GPS) Baud Rate

The baud rate used for the Serial 3 (GPS). The APM2 can support all baudrates up to 115, and also can support 500. The PX4 can support rates of up to 1500. If you setup a rate you cannot support on APM2 and then can’t connect to your board you should load a firmware from a different vehicle type. That will reset all your parameters to defaults.

Values
Value Meaning
1 1200
2 2400
4 4800
9 9600
19 19200
38 38400
57 57600
111 111100
115 115200
500 500000
921 921600
1500 1500000

SERIAL4_PROTOCOL: Serial4 protocol selection

Control what protocol Serial4 port should be used for. Note that the Frsky options require external converter hardware. See the wiki for details.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 None
1 MAVLink1
2 MAVLink2
3 Frsky D
4 Frsky SPort
5 GPS
7 Alexmos Gimbal Serial
8 SToRM32 Gimbal Serial
9 Lidar
10 FrSky SPort Passthrough (OpenTX)
11 Lidar360
12 Aerotenna uLanding
13 Pozyx Beacon

SERIAL4_BAUD: Serial 4 Baud Rate

The baud rate used for Serial4. The APM2 can support all baudrates up to 115, and also can support 500. The PX4 can support rates of up to 1500. If you setup a rate you cannot support on APM2 and then can’t connect to your board you should load a firmware from a different vehicle type. That will reset all your parameters to defaults.

Values
Value Meaning
1 1200
2 2400
4 4800
9 9600
19 19200
38 38400
57 57600
111 111100
115 115200
500 500000
921 921600
1500 1500000

SERIAL5_PROTOCOL: Serial5 protocol selection

Control what protocol Serial5 port should be used for. Note that the Frsky options require external converter hardware. See the wiki for details.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 None
1 MAVLink1
2 MAVLink2
3 Frsky D
4 Frsky SPort
5 GPS
7 Alexmos Gimbal Serial
8 SToRM32 Gimbal Serial
9 Lidar
10 FrSky SPort Passthrough (OpenTX)
11 Lidar360
12 Aerotenna uLanding
13 Pozyx Beacon

SERIAL5_BAUD: Serial 5 Baud Rate

The baud rate used for Serial5. The APM2 can support all baudrates up to 115, and also can support 500. The PX4 can support rates of up to 1500. If you setup a rate you cannot support on APM2 and then can’t connect to your board you should load a firmware from a different vehicle type. That will reset all your parameters to defaults.

Values
Value Meaning
1 1200
2 2400
4 4800
9 9600
19 19200
38 38400
57 57600
111 111100
115 115200
500 500000
921 921600
1500 1500000

GND_ Parameters

GND_ABS_PRESS: Absolute Pressure

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

calibrated ground pressure in Pascals

ReadOnly Volatile Increment Units
True True 1 pascals

GND_TEMP: ground temperature

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

calibrated ground temperature in degrees Celsius

ReadOnly Volatile Increment Units
True True 1 degrees celsius

GND_ALT_OFFSET: altitude offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

altitude offset in meters added to barometric altitude. This is used to allow for automatic adjustment of the base barometric altitude by a ground station equipped with a barometer. The value is added to the barometric altitude read by the aircraft. It is automatically reset to 0 when the barometer is calibrated on each reboot or when a preflight calibration is performed.

Increment Units
0.1 meters

GND_PRIMARY: Primary barometer

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This selects which barometer will be the primary if multiple barometers are found

Values
Value Meaning
0 FirstBaro
1 2ndBaro
2 3rdBaro

GPS_ Parameters

GPS_TYPE: GPS type

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

GPS type

Values RebootRequired
Value Meaning
0 None
1 AUTO
2 uBlox
3 MTK
4 MTK19
5 NMEA
6 SiRF
7 HIL
8 SwiftNav
9 PX4-UAVCAN
10 SBF
11 GSOF
12 QURT
13 ERB
14 MAV
15 NOVA
True

GPS_TYPE2: 2nd GPS type

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

GPS type of 2nd GPS

Values RebootRequired
Value Meaning
0 None
1 AUTO
2 uBlox
3 MTK
4 MTK19
5 NMEA
6 SiRF
7 HIL
8 SwiftNav
9 PX4-UAVCAN
10 SBF
11 GSOF
True

GPS_NAVFILTER: Navigation filter setting

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Navigation filter engine setting

Values
Value Meaning
0 Portable
2 Stationary
3 Pedestrian
4 Automotive
5 Sea
6 Airborne1G
7 Airborne2G
8 Airborne4G

GPS_AUTO_SWITCH: Automatic Switchover Setting

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Automatic switchover to GPS reporting best lock

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

GPS_MIN_DGPS: Minimum Lock Type Accepted for DGPS

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Sets the minimum type of differential GPS corrections required before allowing to switch into DGPS mode.

Values RebootRequired
Value Meaning
0 Any
50 FloatRTK
100 IntegerRTK
True

GPS_SBAS_MODE: SBAS Mode

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the SBAS (satellite based augmentation system) mode if available on this GPS. If set to 2 then the SBAS mode is not changed in the GPS. Otherwise the GPS will be reconfigured to enable/disable SBAS. Disabling SBAS may be worthwhile in some parts of the world where an SBAS signal is available but the baseline is too long to be useful.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled
2 NoChange

GPS_MIN_ELEV: Minimum elevation

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the minimum elevation of satellites above the horizon for them to be used for navigation. Setting this to -100 leaves the minimum elevation set to the GPS modules default.

Range Units
-100 - 90 Degrees

GPS_SBP_LOGMASK: Swift Binary Protocol Logging Mask

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Masked with the SBP msg_type field to determine whether SBR1/SBR2 data is logged

Values
Value Meaning
0x0000 None
0xFFFF All
0xFF00 External only

GPS_RAW_DATA: Raw data logging

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable logging of RXM raw data from uBlox which includes carrier phase and pseudo range information. This allows for post processing of dataflash logs for more precise positioning. Note that this requires a raw capable uBlox such as the 6P or 6T.

Values RebootRequired
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 log every sample
5 log every 5 samples
True

GPS_GNSS_MODE: GNSS system configuration

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Bitmask for what GNSS system to use on the first GPS (all unchecked or zero to leave GPS as configured)

Bitmask Values
Bit Meaning
0 GPS
1 SBAS
2 Galileo
3 Beidou
4 IMES
5 QZSS
6 GLOSNASS
Value Meaning
0 Leave as currently configured
1 GPS-NoSBAS
3 GPS+SBAS
4 Galileo-NoSBAS
6 Galileo+SBAS
8 Beidou
51 GPS+IMES+QZSS+SBAS (Japan Only)
64 GLONASS
66 GLONASS+SBAS
67 GPS+GLONASS+SBAS

GPS_SAVE_CFG: Save GPS configuration

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Determines whether the configuration for this GPS should be written to non-volatile memory on the GPS. Currently working for UBlox 6 series and above.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Do not save config
1 Save config
2 Save only when needed

GPS_GNSS_MODE2: GNSS system configuration

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Bitmask for what GNSS system to use on the second GPS (all unchecked or zero to leave GPS as configured)

Bitmask Values
Bit Meaning
0 GPS
1 SBAS
2 Galileo
3 Beidou
4 IMES
5 QZSS
6 GLOSNASS
Value Meaning
0 Leave as currently configured
1 GPS-NoSBAS
3 GPS+SBAS
4 Galileo-NoSBAS
6 Galileo+SBAS
8 Beidou
51 GPS+IMES+QZSS+SBAS (Japan Only)
64 GLONASS
66 GLONASS+SBAS
67 GPS+GLONASS+SBAS

GPS_AUTO_CONFIG: Automatic GPS configuration

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Controls if the autopilot should automatically configure the GPS based on the parameters and default settings

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disables automatic configuration
1 Enable automatic configuration

GPS_RATE_MS: GPS update rate in milliseconds

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Controls how often the GPS should provide a position update. Lowering below 5Hz is not allowed

Values
Value Meaning
100 10Hz
125 8Hz
200 5Hz

GPS_RATE_MS2: GPS 2 update rate in milliseconds

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Controls how often the GPS should provide a position update. Lowering below 5Hz is not allowed

Values
Value Meaning
100 10Hz
125 8Hz
200 5Hz

GPS_POS1_X: Antenna X position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

X position of the first GPS antenna in body frame. Positive X is forward of the origin. Use antenna phase centroid location if provided by the manufacturer.

Units
m

GPS_POS1_Y: Antenna Y position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Y position of the first GPS antenna in body frame. Positive Y is to the right of the origin. Use antenna phase centroid location if provided by the manufacturer.

Units
m

GPS_POS1_Z: Antenna Z position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Z position of the first GPS antenna in body frame. Positive Z is down from the origin. Use antenna phase centroid location if provided by the manufacturer.

Units
m

GPS_POS2_X: Antenna X position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

X position of the second GPS antenna in body frame. Positive X is forward of the origin. Use antenna phase centroid location if provided by the manufacturer.

Units
m

GPS_POS2_Y: Antenna Y position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Y position of the second GPS antenna in body frame. Positive Y is to the right of the origin. Use antenna phase centroid location if provided by the manufacturer.

Units
m

GPS_POS2_Z: Antenna Z position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Z position of the second GPS antenna in body frame. Positive Z is down from the origin. Use antenna phase centroid location if provided by the manufacturer.

Units
m

CAM_ Parameters

CAM_TRIGG_TYPE: Camera shutter (trigger) type

how to trigger the camera to take a picture

Values
Value Meaning
0 Servo
1 Relay

CAM_DURATION: Duration that shutter is held open

How long the shutter will be held open in 10ths of a second (i.e. enter 10 for 1second, 50 for 5seconds)

Range Units
0 - 50 seconds

CAM_SERVO_ON: Servo ON PWM value

PWM value to move servo to when shutter is activated

Range Units
1000 - 2000 pwm

CAM_SERVO_OFF: Servo OFF PWM value

PWM value to move servo to when shutter is deactivated

Range Units
1000 - 2000 pwm

CAM_TRIGG_DIST: Camera trigger distance

Distance in meters between camera triggers. If this value is non-zero then the camera will trigger whenever the GPS position changes by this number of meters regardless of what mode the APM is in. Note that this parameter can also be set in an auto mission using the DO_SET_CAM_TRIGG_DIST command, allowing you to enable/disable the triggering of the camera during the flight.

Range Units
0 - 1000 meters

CAM_RELAY_ON: Relay ON value

This sets whether the relay goes high or low when it triggers. Note that you should also set RELAY_DEFAULT appropriately for your camera

Values
Value Meaning
0 Low
1 High

CAM_MIN_INTERVAL: Minimum time between photos

Postpone shooting if previous picture was taken less than preset time(ms) ago.

Range Units
0 - 10000 milliseconds

CAM_MAX_ROLL: Maximum photo roll angle.

Postpone shooting if roll is greater than limit. (0=Disable, will shoot regardless of roll).

Range Units
0 - 180 Degrees

CAM_FEEDBACK_PIN: Camera feedback pin

pin number to use for save accurate camera feedback messages. If set to -1 then don’t use a pin flag for this, otherwise this is a pin number which if held high after a picture trigger order, will save camera messages when camera really takes a picture. A universal camera hot shoe is needed. The pin should be held high for at least 2 milliseconds for reliable trigger detection. See also the CAM_FEEDBACK_POL option. If using AUX4 pin on a Pixhawk then a fast capture method is used that allows for the trigger time to be as short as one microsecond.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Disabled
50 PX4 AUX1
51 PX4 AUX2
52 PX4 AUX3
53 PX4 AUX4(fast capture)
54 PX4 AUX5
55 PX4 AUX6

CAM_FEEDBACK_POL: Camera feedback pin polarity

Polarity for feedback pin. If this is 1 then the feedback pin should go high on trigger. If set to 0 then it should go low

Values
Value Meaning
0 TriggerLow
1 TriggerHigh

ARMING_ Parameters

ARMING_RUDDER: Rudder Arming

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Control arm/disarm by rudder input. When enabled arming is done with right rudder, disarming with left rudder. Rudder arming only works in manual throttle modes with throttle at zero +- deadzone (RCx_DZ)

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 ArmingOnly
2 ArmOrDisarm

ARMING_REQUIRE: Require Arming Motors

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Arming disabled until some requirements are met. If 0, there are no requirements (arm immediately). If 1, require rudder stick or GCS arming before arming motors and send THR_MIN PWM to throttle channel when disarmed. If 2, require rudder stick or GCS arming and send 0 PWM to throttle channel when disarmed. See the ARMING_CHECK_* parameters to see what checks are done before arming. Note, if setting this parameter to 0 a reboot is required to arm the plane. Also note, even with this parameter at 0, if ARMING_CHECK parameter is not also zero the plane may fail to arm throttle at boot due to a pre-arm check failure.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 THR_MIN PWM when disarmed
2 0 PWM when disarmed

ARMING_CHECK: Arm Checks to Peform (bitmask)

Checks prior to arming motor. This is a bitmask of checks that will be performed befor allowing arming. The default is no checks, allowing arming at any time. You can select whatever checks you prefer by adding together the values of each check type to set this parameter. For example, to only allow arming when you have GPS lock and no RC failsafe you would set ARMING_CHECK to 72. For most users it is recommended that you set this to 1 to enable all checks.

Bitmask Values
Bit Meaning
0 All
1 Barometer
2 Compass
3 GPS lock
4 INS
5 Parameters
6 RC
7 Board voltage
8 Battery Level
9 Airspeed
10 Logging Available
11 Hardware safety switch
12 GPS Configuration
Value Meaning
0 None
1 All
2 Barometer
4 Compass
8 GPS Lock
16 INS(INertial Sensors - accels & gyros)
32 Parameters(unused)
64 RC Failsafe
128 Board voltage
256 Battery Level
512 Airspeed
1024 LoggingAvailable
2048 Hardware safety switch
4096 GPS configuration

ARMING_ACCTHRESH: Accelerometer error threshold

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer error threshold used to determine inconsistent accelerometers. Compares this error range to other accelerometers to detect a hardware or calibration error. Lower value means tighter check and harder to pass arming check. Not all accelerometers are created equal.

Range Units
0.25 - 3.0 m/s/s

ARMING_MIN_VOLT: Minimum arming voltage on the first battery

The minimum voltage on the first battery to arm, 0 disabes the check

Increment Units
0.1 Volts

ARMING_MIN_VOLT2: Minimum arming voltage on the second battery

The minimum voltage on the first battery to arm, 0 disabes the check

Increment Units
0.1 Volts

RELAY_ Parameters

RELAY_PIN: First Relay Pin

Digital pin number for first relay control. This is the pin used for camera control.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Disabled
13 APM2 A9 pin
47 APM1 relay
50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
111 PX4 FMU Relay1
112 PX4 FMU Relay2
113 PX4IO Relay1
114 PX4IO Relay2
115 PX4IO ACC1
116 PX4IO ACC2

RELAY_PIN2: Second Relay Pin

Digital pin number for 2nd relay control.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Disabled
13 APM2 A9 pin
47 APM1 relay
50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
111 PX4 FMU Relay1
112 PX4 FMU Relay2
113 PX4IO Relay1
114 PX4IO Relay2
115 PX4IO ACC1
116 PX4IO ACC2

RELAY_PIN3: Third Relay Pin

Digital pin number for 3rd relay control.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Disabled
13 APM2 A9 pin
47 APM1 relay
50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
111 PX4 FMU Relay1
112 PX4 FMU Relay2
113 PX4IO Relay1
114 PX4IO Relay2
115 PX4IO ACC1
116 PX4IO ACC2

RELAY_PIN4: Fourth Relay Pin

Digital pin number for 4th relay control.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Disabled
13 APM2 A9 pin
47 APM1 relay
50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
111 PX4 FMU Relay1
112 PX4 FMU Relay2
113 PX4IO Relay1
114 PX4IO Relay2
115 PX4IO ACC1
116 PX4IO ACC2

RELAY_DEFAULT: Default relay state

The state of the relay on boot.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Off
1 On
2 NoChange

CHUTE_ Parameters

CHUTE_ENABLED: Parachute release enabled or disabled

Parachute release enabled or disabled

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

CHUTE_TYPE: Parachute release mechanism type (relay or servo)

Parachute release mechanism type (relay or servo)

Values
Value Meaning
0 First Relay
1 Second Relay
2 Third Relay
3 Fourth Relay
10 Servo

CHUTE_SERVO_ON: Parachute Servo ON PWM value

Parachute Servo PWM value when parachute is released

Range Increment Units
1000 - 2000 1 pwm

CHUTE_SERVO_OFF: Servo OFF PWM value

Parachute Servo PWM value when parachute is not released

Range Increment Units
1000 - 2000 1 pwm

CHUTE_ALT_MIN: Parachute min altitude in meters above home

Parachute min altitude above home. Parachute will not be released below this altitude. 0 to disable alt check.

Range Increment Units
0 - 32000 1 Meters

CHUTE_DELAY_MS: Parachute release delay

Delay in millseconds between motor stop and chute release

Range Increment Units
0 - 5000 1 Milliseconds

RNGFND Parameters

RNGFND_TYPE: Rangefinder type

What type of rangefinder device that is connected

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 Analog
2 MaxbotixI2C
3 PulsedLightI2C
4 PX4-I2C
5 PX4-PWM
6 BBB-PRU
7 LightWareI2C
8 LightWareSerial
9 Bebop
10 MAVLink
11 uLanding
12 LeddarOne
13 MaxbotixSerial

RNGFND_PIN: Rangefinder pin

Analog pin that rangefinder is connected to. Set this to 0..9 for the APM2 analog pins. Set to 64 on an APM1 for the dedicated ‘airspeed’ port on the end of the board. Set to 11 on PX4 for the analog ‘airspeed’ port. Set to 15 on the Pixhawk for the analog ‘airspeed’ port.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Not Used
0 APM2-A0
1 APM2-A1
2 APM2-A2
3 APM2-A3
4 APM2-A4
5 APM2-A5
6 APM2-A6
7 APM2-A7
8 APM2-A8
9 APM2-A9
11 PX4-airspeed port
15 Pixhawk-airspeed port
64 APM1-airspeed port

RNGFND_SCALING: Rangefinder scaling

Scaling factor between rangefinder reading and distance. For the linear and inverted functions this is in meters per volt. For the hyperbolic function the units are meterVolts.

Increment Units
0.001 meters/Volt

RNGFND_OFFSET: rangefinder offset

Offset in volts for zero distance for analog rangefinders. Offset added to distance in centimeters for PWM and I2C Lidars

Increment Units
0.001 Volts

RNGFND_FUNCTION: Rangefinder function

Control over what function is used to calculate distance. For a linear function, the distance is (voltage-offset)*scaling. For a inverted function the distance is (offset-voltage)*scaling. For a hyperbolic function the distance is scaling/(voltage-offset). The functions return the distance in meters.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Linear
1 Inverted
2 Hyperbolic

RNGFND_MIN_CM: Rangefinder minimum distance

Minimum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

Increment Units
1 centimeters

RNGFND_MAX_CM: Rangefinder maximum distance

Maximum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

Increment Units
1 centimeters

RNGFND_STOP_PIN: Rangefinder stop pin

Digital pin that enables/disables rangefinder measurement for an analog rangefinder. A value of -1 means no pin. If this is set, then the pin is set to 1 to enable the rangefinder and set to 0 to disable it. This can be used to ensure that multiple sonar rangefinders don’t interfere with each other.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Not Used
50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
111 PX4 FMU Relay1
112 PX4 FMU Relay2
113 PX4IO Relay1
114 PX4IO Relay2
115 PX4IO ACC1
116 PX4IO ACC2

RNGFND_SETTLE: Rangefinder settle time

The time in milliseconds that the rangefinder reading takes to settle. This is only used when a STOP_PIN is specified. It determines how long we have to wait for the rangefinder to give a reading after we set the STOP_PIN high. For a sonar rangefinder with a range of around 7m this would need to be around 50 milliseconds to allow for the sonar pulse to travel to the target and back again.

Increment Units
1 milliseconds

RNGFND_RMETRIC: Ratiometric

This parameter sets whether an analog rangefinder is ratiometric. Most analog rangefinders are ratiometric, meaning that their output voltage is influenced by the supply voltage. Some analog rangefinders (such as the SF/02) have their own internal voltage regulators so they are not ratiometric.

Values
Value Meaning
0 No
1 Yes

RNGFND_PWRRNG: Powersave range

This parameter sets the estimated terrain distance in meters above which the sensor will be put into a power saving mode (if available). A value of zero means power saving is not enabled

Range Units
0 - 32767 meters

RNGFND_GNDCLEAR: Distance (in cm) from the range finder to the ground

This parameter sets the expected range measurement(in cm) that the range finder should return when the vehicle is on the ground.

Range Increment Units
0 - 127 1 centimeters

RNGFND_ADDR: Bus address of sensor

This sets the bus address of the sensor, where applicable. Used for the LightWare I2C sensor to allow for multiple sensors on different addresses. A value of 0 disables the sensor.

Range Increment
0 - 127 1

RNGFND_POS_X: X position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

X position of the first rangefinder in body frame. Positive X is forward of the origin. Use the zero range datum point if supplied.

Units
m

RNGFND_POS_Y: Y position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Y position of the first rangefinder in body frame. Positive Y is to the right of the origin. Use the zero range datum point if supplied.

Units
m

RNGFND_POS_Z: Z position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Z position of the first rangefinder in body frame. Positive Z is down from the origin. Use the zero range datum point if supplied.

Units
m

RNGFND2_TYPE: Second Rangefinder type

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

What type of rangefinder device that is connected

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 Analog
2 MaxbotixI2C
3 PulsedLightI2C
4 PX4-I2C
5 PX4-PWM
6 BBB-PRU
7 LightWareI2C
8 LightWareSerial
9 Bebop
10 MAVLink
11 uLanding
12 LeddarOne
13 MaxbotixSerial

RNGFND2_PIN: Rangefinder pin

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Analog pin that rangefinder is connected to. Set this to 0..9 for the APM2 analog pins. Set to 64 on an APM1 for the dedicated ‘airspeed’ port on the end of the board. Set to 11 on PX4 for the analog ‘airspeed’ port. Set to 15 on the Pixhawk for the analog ‘airspeed’ port.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Not Used
0 APM2-A0
1 APM2-A1
2 APM2-A2
3 APM2-A3
4 APM2-A4
5 APM2-A5
6 APM2-A6
7 APM2-A7
8 APM2-A8
9 APM2-A9
11 PX4-airspeed port
15 Pixhawk-airspeed port
64 APM1-airspeed port

RNGFND2_SCALING: Rangefinder scaling

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Scaling factor between rangefinder reading and distance. For the linear and inverted functions this is in meters per volt. For the hyperbolic function the units are meterVolts.

Increment Units
0.001 meters/Volt

RNGFND2_OFFSET: rangefinder offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Offset in volts for zero distance

Increment Units
0.001 Volts

RNGFND2_FUNCTION: Rangefinder function

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Control over what function is used to calculate distance. For a linear function, the distance is (voltage-offset)*scaling. For a inverted function the distance is (offset-voltage)*scaling. For a hyperbolic function the distance is scaling/(voltage-offset). The functions return the distance in meters.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Linear
1 Inverted
2 Hyperbolic

RNGFND2_MIN_CM: Rangefinder minimum distance

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Minimum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

Increment Units
1 centimeters

RNGFND2_MAX_CM: Rangefinder maximum distance

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Maximum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

Increment Units
1 centimeters

RNGFND2_STOP_PIN: Rangefinder stop pin

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Digital pin that enables/disables rangefinder measurement for an analog rangefinder. A value of -1 means no pin. If this is set, then the pin is set to 1 to enable the rangefinder and set to 0 to disable it. This can be used to ensure that multiple sonar rangefinders don’t interfere with each other.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Not Used
50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
111 PX4 FMU Relay1
112 PX4 FMU Relay2
113 PX4IO Relay1
114 PX4IO Relay2
115 PX4IO ACC1
116 PX4IO ACC2

RNGFND2_SETTLE: Sonar settle time

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The time in milliseconds that the rangefinder reading takes to settle. This is only used when a STOP_PIN is specified. It determines how long we have to wait for the rangefinder to give a reading after we set the STOP_PIN high. For a sonar rangefinder with a range of around 7m this would need to be around 50 milliseconds to allow for the sonar pulse to travel to the target and back again.

Increment Units
1 milliseconds

RNGFND2_RMETRIC: Ratiometric

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets whether an analog rangefinder is ratiometric. Most analog rangefinders are ratiometric, meaning that their output voltage is influenced by the supply voltage. Some analog rangefinders (such as the SF/02) have their own internal voltage regulators so they are not ratiometric.

Values
Value Meaning
0 No
1 Yes

RNGFND2_GNDCLEAR: Distance (in cm) from the second range finder to the ground

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the expected range measurement(in cm) that the second range finder should return when the vehicle is on the ground.

Range Increment Units
0 - 127 1 centimeters

RNGFND2_ADDR: Bus address of second rangefinder

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the bus address of the sensor, where applicable. Used for the LightWare I2C sensor to allow for multiple sensors on different addresses. A value of 0 disables the sensor.

Range Increment
0 - 127 1

RNGFND2_POS_X: X position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

X position of the second rangefinder in body frame. Positive X is forward of the origin. Use the zero range datum point if supplied.

Units
m

RNGFND2_POS_Y: Y position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Y position of the second rangefinder in body frame. Positive Y is to the right of the origin. Use the zero range datum point if supplied.

Units
m

RNGFND2_POS_Z: Z position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Z position of the second rangefinder in body frame. Positive Z is down from the origin. Use the zero range datum point if supplied.

Units
m

RNGFND3_TYPE: Third Rangefinder type

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

What type of rangefinder device that is connected

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 Analog
2 APM2-MaxbotixI2C
3 APM2-PulsedLightI2C
4 PX4-I2C
5 PX4-PWM
6 BBB-PRU
7 LightWareI2C
8 LightWareSerial
9 Bebop
10 MAVLink
11 uLanding
12 LeddarOne
13 MaxbotixSerial

RNGFND3_PIN: Rangefinder pin

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Analog pin that rangefinder is connected to. Set this to 0..9 for the APM2 analog pins. Set to 64 on an APM1 for the dedicated ‘airspeed’ port on the end of the board. Set to 11 on PX4 for the analog ‘airspeed’ port. Set to 15 on the Pixhawk for the analog ‘airspeed’ port.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Not Used
0 APM2-A0
1 APM2-A1
2 APM2-A2
3 APM2-A3
4 APM2-A4
5 APM2-A5
6 APM2-A6
7 APM2-A7
8 APM2-A8
9 APM2-A9
11 PX4-airspeed port
15 Pixhawk-airspeed port
64 APM1-airspeed port

RNGFND3_SCALING: Rangefinder scaling

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Scaling factor between rangefinder reading and distance. For the linear and inverted functions this is in meters per volt. For the hyperbolic function the units are meterVolts.

Increment Units
0.001 meters/Volt

RNGFND3_OFFSET: rangefinder offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Offset in volts for zero distance

Increment Units
0.001 Volts

RNGFND3_FUNCTION: Rangefinder function

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Control over what function is used to calculate distance. For a linear function, the distance is (voltage-offset)*scaling. For a inverted function the distance is (offset-voltage)*scaling. For a hyperbolic function the distance is scaling/(voltage-offset). The functions return the distance in meters.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Linear
1 Inverted
2 Hyperbolic

RNGFND3_MIN_CM: Rangefinder minimum distance

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Minimum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

Increment Units
1 centimeters

RNGFND3_MAX_CM: Rangefinder maximum distance

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Maximum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

Increment Units
1 centimeters

RNGFND3_STOP_PIN: Rangefinder stop pin

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Digital pin that enables/disables rangefinder measurement for an analog rangefinder. A value of -1 means no pin. If this is set, then the pin is set to 1 to enable the rangefinder and set to 0 to disable it. This can be used to ensure that multiple sonar rangefinders don’t interfere with each other.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Not Used
50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
111 PX4 FMU Relay1
112 PX4 FMU Relay2
113 PX4IO Relay1
114 PX4IO Relay2
115 PX4IO ACC1
116 PX4IO ACC2

RNGFND3_SETTLE: Sonar settle time

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The time in milliseconds that the rangefinder reading takes to settle. This is only used when a STOP_PIN is specified. It determines how long we have to wait for the rangefinder to give a reading after we set the STOP_PIN high. For a sonar rangefinder with a range of around 7m this would need to be around 50 milliseconds to allow for the sonar pulse to travel to the target and back again.

Increment Units
1 milliseconds

RNGFND3_RMETRIC: Ratiometric

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets whether an analog rangefinder is ratiometric. Most analog rangefinders are ratiometric, meaning that their output voltage is influenced by the supply voltage. Some analog rangefinders (such as the SF/02) have their own internal voltage regulators so they are not ratiometric.

Values
Value Meaning
0 No
1 Yes

RNGFND3_GNDCLEAR: Distance (in cm) from the third range finder to the ground

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the expected range measurement(in cm) that the third range finder should return when the vehicle is on the ground.

Range Increment Units
0 - 127 1 centimeters

RNGFND3_ADDR: Bus address of third rangefinder

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the bus address of the sensor, where applicable. Used for the LightWare I2C sensor to allow for multiple sensors on different addresses. A value of 0 disables the sensor.

Range Increment
0 - 127 1

RNGFND3_POS_X: X position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

X position of the third rangefinder in body frame. Positive X is forward of the origin. Use the zero range datum point if supplied.

Units
m

RNGFND3_POS_Y: Y position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Y position of the third rangefinder in body frame. Positive Y is to the right of the origin. Use the zero range datum point if supplied.

Units
m

RNGFND3_POS_Z: Z position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Z position of the third rangefinder in body frame. Positive Z is down from the origin. Use the zero range datum point if supplied.

Units
m

RNGFND4_TYPE: Fourth Rangefinder type

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

What type of rangefinder device that is connected

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 Analog
2 APM2-MaxbotixI2C
3 APM2-PulsedLightI2C
4 PX4-I2C
5 PX4-PWM
6 BBB-PRU
7 LightWareI2C
8 LightWareSerial
9 Bebop
10 MAVLink
11 uLanding
12 LeddarOne
13 MaxbotixSerial

RNGFND4_PIN: Rangefinder pin

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Analog pin that rangefinder is connected to. Set this to 0..9 for the APM2 analog pins. Set to 64 on an APM1 for the dedicated ‘airspeed’ port on the end of the board. Set to 11 on PX4 for the analog ‘airspeed’ port. Set to 15 on the Pixhawk for the analog ‘airspeed’ port.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Not Used
0 APM2-A0
1 APM2-A1
2 APM2-A2
3 APM2-A3
4 APM2-A4
5 APM2-A5
6 APM2-A6
7 APM2-A7
8 APM2-A8
9 APM2-A9
11 PX4-airspeed port
15 Pixhawk-airspeed port
64 APM1-airspeed port

RNGFND4_SCALING: Rangefinder scaling

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Scaling factor between rangefinder reading and distance. For the linear and inverted functions this is in meters per volt. For the hyperbolic function the units are meterVolts.

Increment Units
0.001 meters/Volt

RNGFND4_OFFSET: rangefinder offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Offset in volts for zero distance

Increment Units
0.001 Volts

RNGFND4_FUNCTION: Rangefinder function

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Control over what function is used to calculate distance. For a linear function, the distance is (voltage-offset)*scaling. For a inverted function the distance is (offset-voltage)*scaling. For a hyperbolic function the distance is scaling/(voltage-offset). The functions return the distance in meters.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Linear
1 Inverted
2 Hyperbolic

RNGFND4_MIN_CM: Rangefinder minimum distance

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Minimum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

Increment Units
1 centimeters

RNGFND4_MAX_CM: Rangefinder maximum distance

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Maximum distance in centimeters that rangefinder can reliably read

Increment Units
1 centimeters

RNGFND4_STOP_PIN: Rangefinder stop pin

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Digital pin that enables/disables rangefinder measurement for an analog rangefinder. A value of -1 means no pin. If this is set, then the pin is set to 1 to enable the rangefinder and set to 0 to disable it. This can be used to ensure that multiple sonar rangefinders don’t interfere with each other.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Not Used
50 Pixhawk AUXOUT1
51 Pixhawk AUXOUT2
52 Pixhawk AUXOUT3
53 Pixhawk AUXOUT4
54 Pixhawk AUXOUT5
55 Pixhawk AUXOUT6
111 PX4 FMU Relay1
112 PX4 FMU Relay2
113 PX4IO Relay1
114 PX4IO Relay2
115 PX4IO ACC1
116 PX4IO ACC2

RNGFND4_SETTLE: Sonar settle time

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The time in milliseconds that the rangefinder reading takes to settle. This is only used when a STOP_PIN is specified. It determines how long we have to wait for the rangefinder to give a reading after we set the STOP_PIN high. For a sonar rangefinder with a range of around 7m this would need to be around 50 milliseconds to allow for the sonar pulse to travel to the target and back again.

Increment Units
1 milliseconds

RNGFND4_RMETRIC: Ratiometric

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets whether an analog rangefinder is ratiometric. Most analog rangefinders are ratiometric, meaning that their output voltage is influenced by the supply voltage. Some analog rangefinders (such as the SF/02) have their own internal voltage regulators so they are not ratiometric.

Values
Value Meaning
0 No
1 Yes

RNGFND4_GNDCLEAR: Distance (in cm) from the fourth range finder to the ground

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the expected range measurement(in cm) that the fourth range finder should return when the vehicle is on the ground.

Range Increment Units
0 - 127 1 centimeters

RNGFND4_ADDR: Bus address of fourth rangefinder

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the bus address of the sensor, where applicable. Used for the LightWare I2C sensor to allow for multiple sensors on different addresses. A value of 0 disables the sensor.

Range Increment
0 - 127 1

RNGFND4_POS_X: X position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

X position of the fourth rangefinder in body frame. Use the zero range datum point if supplied.

Units
m

RNGFND4_POS_Y: Y position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Y position of the fourth rangefinder in body frame. Use the zero range datum point if supplied.

Units
m

RNGFND4_POS_Z: Z position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Z position of the fourth rangefinder in body frame. Use the zero range datum point if supplied.

Units
m

TERRAIN_ Parameters

TERRAIN_ENABLE: Terrain data enable

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

enable terrain data. This enables the vehicle storing a database of terrain data on the SD card. The terrain data is requested from the ground station as needed, and stored for later use on the SD card. To be useful the ground station must support TERRAIN_REQUEST messages and have access to a terrain database, such as the SRTM database.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disable
1 Enable

TERRAIN_SPACING: Terrain grid spacing

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Distance between terrain grid points in meters. This controls the horizontal resolution of the terrain data that is stored on te SD card and requested from the ground station. If your GCS is using the worldwide SRTM database then a resolution of 100 meters is appropriate. Some parts of the world may have higher resolution data available, such as 30 meter data available in the SRTM database in the USA. The grid spacing also controls how much data is kept in memory during flight. A larger grid spacing will allow for a larger amount of data in memory. A grid spacing of 100 meters results in the vehicle keeping 12 grid squares in memory with each grid square having a size of 2.7 kilometers by 3.2 kilometers. Any additional grid squares are stored on the SD once they are fetched from the GCS and will be demand loaded as needed.

Increment Units
1 meters

ADSB_ Parameters

ADSB_ENABLE: Enable ADSB

Enable ADS-B

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

ADSB_LIST_MAX: ADSB vehicle list size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ADSB list size of nearest vehicles. Longer lists take longer to refresh with lower SRx_ADSB values.

Range
1 - 100

ADSB_LIST_RADIUS: ADSB vehicle list radius filter

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ADSB vehicle list radius filter. Vehicles detected outside this radius will be completely ignored. They will not show up in the SRx_ADSB stream to the GCS and will not be considered in any avoidance calculations.

Range
1 - 100000

ADSB_ICAO_ID: ICAO_ID vehicle identifaction number

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ICAO_ID unique vehicle identifaction number of this aircraft. This is a integer limited to 24bits. If set to 0 then one will be randomly generated. If set to -1 then static information is not sent, transceiver is assumed pre-programmed.

Range
-1 - 16777215

ADSB_EMIT_TYPE: Emitter type

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ADSB classification for the type of vehicle emitting the transponder signal. Default value is 14 (UAV).

Values
Value Meaning
0 NoInfo
1 Light
2 Small
3 Large
4 HighVortexlarge
5 Heavy
6 HighlyManuv
7 Rotocraft
8 RESERVED
9 Glider
10 LightAir
11 Parachute
12 UltraLight
13 RESERVED
14 UAV
15 Space
16 RESERVED
17 EmergencySurface
18 ServiceSurface
19 PointObstacle

ADSB_LEN_WIDTH: Aircraft length and width

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Aircraft length and width dimension options in Length and Width in meters. In most cases, use a value of 1 for smallest size.

Values
Value Meaning
0 NO_DATA
1 L15W23
2 L25W28P5
3 L25W34
4 L35W33
5 L35W38
6 L45W39P5
7 L45W45
8 L55W45
9 L55W52
10 L65W59P5
11 L65W67
12 L75W72P5
13 L75W80
14 L85W80
15 L85W90

ADSB_OFFSET_LAT: GPS antenna lateral offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

GPS antenna lateral offset. This describes the physical location offest from center of the GPS antenna on the aircraft.

Values
Value Meaning
0 NoData
1 Left2m
2 Left4m
3 Left6m
4 Center
5 Right2m
6 Right4m
7 Right6m

ADSB_OFFSET_LON: GPS antenna longitudinal offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

GPS antenna longitudinal offset. This is usually set to 1, Applied By Sensor

Values
Value Meaning
0 NO_DATA
1 AppliedBySensor

ADSB_RF_SELECT: Transceiver RF selection

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Transceiver RF selection for Rx enable and/or Tx enable.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Rx-Only
2 Tx-Only
3 Rx and Tx Enabled

AVD_ Parameters

AVD_ENABLE: Enable Avoidance using ADSB

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable Avoidance using ADSB

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

AVD_F_RCVRY: Recovery behaviour after a fail event

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Determines what the aircraft will do after a fail event is resolved

Values
Value Meaning
0 Remain in AVOID_ADSB
1 Resume previous flight mode
2 RTL
3 Resume if AUTO else Loiter

AVD_OBS_MAX: Maximum number of obstacles to track

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Maximum number of obstacles to track

AVD_W_TIME: Time Horizon Warn

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Aircraft velocity vectors are multiplied by this time to determine closest approach. If this results in an approach closer than W_DIST_XY or W_DIST_Z then W_ACTION is undertaken (assuming F_ACTION is not undertaken)

AVD_F_TIME: Time Horizon Fail

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Aircraft velocity vectors are multiplied by this time to determine closest approach. If this results in an approach closer than F_DIST_XY or F_DIST_Z then F_ACTION is undertaken

AVD_W_DIST_XY: Distance Warn XY

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Closest allowed projected distance before W_ACTION is undertaken

AVD_F_DIST_XY: Distance Fail XY

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Closest allowed projected distance before F_ACTION is undertaken

AVD_W_DIST_Z: Distance Warn Z

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Closest allowed projected distance before BEHAVIOUR_W is undertaken

AVD_F_DIST_Z: Distance Fail Z

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Closest allowed projected distance before BEHAVIOUR_F is undertaken

Q_ Parameters

Q_ENABLE: Enable QuadPlane

This enables QuadPlane functionality, assuming multicopter motors start on output 5. If this is set to 2 then when starting AUTO mode it will initially be in VTOL AUTO mode.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disable
1 Enable
2 Enable VTOL AUTO

Q_ANGLE_MAX: Angle Max

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Maximum lean angle in all VTOL flight modes

Range Units
1000 - 8000 Centi-degrees

Q_TRANSITION_MS: Transition time

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Transition time in milliseconds after minimum airspeed is reached

Range Units
0 - 30000 milli-seconds

Q_PZ_P: Position (vertical) controller P gain

Position (vertical) controller P gain. Converts the difference between the desired altitude and actual altitude into a climb or descent rate which is passed to the throttle rate controller

Range
1.000 - 3.000

Q_PXY_P: Position (horizonal) controller P gain

Loiter position controller P gain. Converts the distance (in the latitude direction) to the target location into a desired speed which is then passed to the loiter latitude rate controller

Range
0.500 - 2.000

Q_VXY_P: Velocity (horizontal) P gain

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Velocity (horizontal) P gain. Converts the difference between desired velocity to a target acceleration

Range Increment
0.1 - 6.0 0.1

Q_VXY_I: Velocity (horizontal) I gain

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Velocity (horizontal) I gain. Corrects long-term difference in desired velocity to a target acceleration

Range Increment
0.02 - 1.00 0.01

Q_VXY_IMAX: Velocity (horizontal) integrator maximum

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Velocity (horizontal) integrator maximum. Constrains the target acceleration that the I gain will output

Range Increment Units
0 - 4500 10 cm/s/s

Q_VZ_P: Velocity (vertical) P gain

Velocity (vertical) P gain. Converts the difference between desired vertical speed and actual speed into a desired acceleration that is passed to the throttle acceleration controller

Range
1.000 - 8.000

Q_AZ_P: Throttle acceleration controller P gain

Throttle acceleration controller P gain. Converts the difference between desired vertical acceleration and actual acceleration into a motor output

Range
0.500 - 1.500

Q_AZ_I: Throttle acceleration controller I gain

Throttle acceleration controller I gain. Corrects long-term difference in desired vertical acceleration and actual acceleration

Range
0.000 - 3.000

Q_AZ_IMAX: Throttle acceleration controller I gain maximum

Throttle acceleration controller I gain maximum. Constrains the maximum pwm that the I term will generate

Range Units
0 - 1000 Percent*10

Q_AZ_D: Throttle acceleration controller D gain

Throttle acceleration controller D gain. Compensates for short-term change in desired vertical acceleration vs actual acceleration

Range
0.000 - 0.400

Q_AZ_FILT_HZ: Throttle acceleration filter

Filter applied to acceleration to reduce noise. Lower values reduce noise but add delay.

Range Units
1.000 - 100.000 Hz

Q_VELZ_MAX: Pilot maximum vertical speed

The maximum vertical velocity the pilot may request in cm/s

Range Increment Units
50 - 500 10 Centimeters/Second

Q_ACCEL_Z: Pilot vertical acceleration

The vertical acceleration used when pilot is controlling the altitude

Range Increment Units
50 - 500 10 cm/s/s

Q_RC_SPEED: RC output speed in Hz

This is the PWM refresh rate in Hz for QuadPlane quad motors

Range Increment Units
50 - 500 10 Hz

Q_THR_MIN_PWM: Minimum PWM output

This is the minimum PWM output for the quad motors

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 Hz

Q_THR_MAX_PWM: Maximum PWM output

This is the maximum PWM output for the quad motors

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 Hz

Q_ASSIST_SPEED: Quadplane assistance speed

This is the speed below which the quad motors will provide stability and lift assistance in fixed wing modes. Zero means no assistance except during transition

Range Increment Units
0 - 100 0.1 m/s

Q_YAW_RATE_MAX: Maximum yaw rate

This is the maximum yaw rate in degrees/second

Range Increment Units
50 - 500 1 degrees/second

Q_LAND_SPEED: Land speed

The descent speed for the final stage of landing in cm/s

Range Increment Units
30 - 200 10 cm/s

Q_LAND_FINAL_ALT: Land final altitude

The altitude at which we should switch to Q_LAND_SPEED descent rate

Range Increment Units
0.5 - 50 0.1 m

Q_TRAN_PIT_MAX: Transition max pitch

Maximum pitch during transition to auto fixed wing flight

Range Increment Units
0 - 30 1 Degrees

Q_FRAME_CLASS: Frame Class

Controls major frame class for multicopter component

Values
Value Meaning
0 Quad
1 Hexa
2 Octa
3 OctaQuad
4 Y6

Q_FRAME_TYPE: Frame Type (+, X or V)

Controls motor mixing for multicopter component

Values
Value Meaning
0 Plus
1 X
2 V
3 H
4 V-Tail
5 A-Tail
10 Y6B

Q_VFWD_GAIN: Forward velocity hold gain

Controls use of forward motor in vtol modes. If this is zero then the forward motor will not be used for position control in VTOL modes. A value of 0.05 is a good place to start if you want to use the forward motor for position control. No forward motor will be used in QSTABILIZE or QHOVER modes. Use QLOITER for position hold with the forward motor.

Range Increment
0 - 0.5 0.01

Q_WVANE_GAIN: Weathervaning gain

This controls the tendency to yaw to face into the wind. A value of 0.1 is to start with and will give a slow turn into the wind. Use a value of 0.4 for more rapid response. The weathervaning works by turning into the direction of roll.

Range Increment
0 - 1 0.01

Q_WVANE_MINROLL: Weathervaning min roll

This set the minimum roll in degrees before active weathervaning will start. This may need to be larger if your aircraft has bad roll trim.

Range Increment
0 - 10 0.1

Q_RTL_ALT: QRTL return altitude

The altitude which QRTL mode heads to initially

Range Increment Units
1 - 200 1 m

Q_RTL_MODE: VTOL RTL mode

If this is set to 1 then an RTL will change to QRTL when the loiter target is reached

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

Q_TILT_MASK: Tiltrotor mask

This is a bitmask of motors that are tiltable in a tiltrotor (or tiltwing). The mask is in terms of the standard motor order for the frame type.

Q_TILT_RATE: Tiltrotor tilt rate

This is the maximum speed at which the motor angle will change for a tiltrotor

Range Increment Units
10 - 300 1 degrees/second

Q_TILT_MAX: Tiltrotor maximum VTOL angle

This is the maximum angle of the tiltable motors at which multicopter control will be enabled. Beyond this angle the plane will fly solely as a fixed wing aircraft and the motors will tilt to their maximum angle at the TILT_RATE

Range Increment Units
20 - 80 1 degrees

Q_GUIDED_MODE: Enable VTOL in GUIDED mode

This enables use of VTOL in guided mode. When enabled the aircraft will switch to VTOL flight when the guided destination is reached and hover at the destination.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

Q_ESC_CAL: ESC Calibration

This is used to calibrate the throttle range of the VTOL motors. Please read http://ardupilot.org/plane/docs/quadplane-esc-calibration.html before using. This parameter is automatically set back to 0 on every boot. This parameter only takes effect in QSTABILIZE mode. When set to 1 the output of all motors will come directly from the throttle stick when armed, and will be zero when disarmed. When set to 2 the output of all motors will be maximum when armed and zero when disarmed. Make sure you remove all properllers before using.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 ThrottleInput
2 FullInput

Q_VFWD_ALT: Forward velocity alt cutoff

Controls altitude to disable forward velocity assist when below this relative altitude. This is useful to keep the forward velocity propeller from hitting the ground. Rangefinder height data is incorporated when available.

Range Increment
0 - 10 0.25

Q_LAND_ICE_CUT: Cut IC engine on landing

This controls stopping an internal combustion engine in the final landing stage of a VTOL. This is important for aircraft where the forward thrust engine may experience prop-strike if left running during landing. This requires the engine controls are enabled using the ICE_* parameters.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

Q_ASSIST_ANGLE: Quadplane assistance angle

This is the angular error in attitude beyond which the quadplane VTOL motors will provide stability assistance. This will only be used if Q_ASSIST_SPEED is also non-zero. Assistance will be given if the attitude is outside the normal attitude limits by at least 5 degrees and the angular error in roll or pitch is greater than this angle for at least 1 second. Set to zero to disable angle assistance.

Range Increment Units
0 - 90 1 degrees

TUNE_ Parameters

TUNE_PARAM: Transmitter tuning parameter or set of parameters

This sets which parameter or set of parameters will be tuned. Values greater than 100 indicate a set of parameters rather than a single parameter. Parameters less than 50 are for QuadPlane vertical lift motors only.

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 RateRollPI
2 RateRollP
3 RateRollI
4 RateRollD
5 RatePitchPI
6 RatePitchP
7 RatePitchI
8 RatePitchD
9 RateYawPI
10 RateYawP
11 RateYawI
12 RateYawD
13 AngleRollP
14 AnglePitchP
15 AngleYawP
16 PosXYP
17 PosZP
18 VelXYP
19 VelXYI
20 VelZP
21 AccelZP
22 AccelZI
23 AccelZD
50 FixedWingRollP
51 FixedWingRollI
52 FixedWingRollD
53 FixedWingRollFF
54 FixedWingPitchP
55 FixedWingPitchI
56 FixedWingPitchD
57 FixedWingPitchFF
101 Set_RateRollPitch
102 Set_RateRoll
103 Set_RatePitch
104 Set_RateYaw
105 Set_AngleRollPitch
106 Set_VelXY
107 Set_AccelZ

TUNE_CHAN: Transmitter tuning channel

This sets the channel for transmitter tuning. This should be connected to a knob or slider on your transmitter. It needs to be setup to use the PWM range given by TUNE_CHAN_MIN to TUNE_CHAN_MAX

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disable
5 Chan5
6 Chan6
7 Chan7
8 Chan8
9 Chan9
10 Chan10
11 Chan11
12 Chan12
13 Chan13
14 Chan14
15 Chan15
16 Chan16

TUNE_CHAN_MIN: Transmitter tuning channel minimum pwm

This sets the PWM lower limit for the tuning channel

Range
900 - 2100

TUNE_CHAN_MAX: Transmitter tuning channel maximum pwm

This sets the PWM upper limit for the tuning channel

Range
900 - 2100

TUNE_SELECTOR: Transmitter tuning selector channel

This sets the channel for the transmitter tuning selector switch. This should be a 2 position switch, preferably spring loaded. A PWM above 1700 means high, below 1300 means low. If no selector is set then you won’t be able to switch between parameters during flight or re-center the tuning knob

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disable
1 Chan1
2 Chan3
3 Chan3
4 Chan4
5 Chan5
6 Chan6
7 Chan7
8 Chan8
9 Chan9
10 Chan10
11 Chan11
12 Chan12
13 Chan13
14 Chan14
15 Chan15
16 Chan16

TUNE_RANGE: Transmitter tuning range

This sets the range over which tuning will change a parameter. A value of 2 means the tuning parameter will go from 0.5 times the start value to 2x the start value over the range of the tuning channel

TUNE_MODE_REVERT: Revert on mode change

This controls whether tuning values will revert on a flight mode change.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disable
1 Enable

TUNE_ERR_THRESH: Controller error threshold

This sets the controller error threshold above which an alarm will sound and a message will be sent to the GCS to warn of controller instability

Range
0 - 1

Q_A_ Parameters

Q_A_RAT_RLL_P: Roll axis rate controller P gain

Roll axis rate controller P gain. Converts the difference between desired roll rate and actual roll rate into a motor speed output

Range Increment
0.08 - 0.30 0.005

Q_A_RAT_RLL_I: Roll axis rate controller I gain

Roll axis rate controller I gain. Corrects long-term difference in desired roll rate vs actual roll rate

Range Increment
0.01 - 0.5 0.01

Q_A_RAT_RLL_IMAX: Roll axis rate controller I gain maximum

Roll axis rate controller I gain maximum. Constrains the maximum motor output that the I gain will output

Range Increment Units
0 - 1 0.01 Percent

Q_A_RAT_RLL_D: Roll axis rate controller D gain

Roll axis rate controller D gain. Compensates for short-term change in desired roll rate vs actual roll rate

Range Increment
0.0 - 0.02 0.001

Q_A_RAT_RLL_FILT: Roll axis rate conroller input frequency in Hz

Roll axis rate conroller input frequency in Hz

Range Increment Units
1 - 100 1 Hz

Q_A_RAT_PIT_P: Pitch axis rate controller P gain

Pitch axis rate controller P gain. Converts the difference between desired pitch rate and actual pitch rate into a motor speed output

Range Increment
0.08 - 0.30 0.005

Q_A_RAT_PIT_I: Pitch axis rate controller I gain

Pitch axis rate controller I gain. Corrects long-term difference in desired pitch rate vs actual pitch rate

Range Increment
0.01 - 0.5 0.01

Q_A_RAT_PIT_IMAX: Pitch axis rate controller I gain maximum

Pitch axis rate controller I gain maximum. Constrains the maximum motor output that the I gain will output

Range Increment Units
0 - 1 0.01 Percent

Q_A_RAT_PIT_D: Pitch axis rate controller D gain

Pitch axis rate controller D gain. Compensates for short-term change in desired pitch rate vs actual pitch rate

Range Increment
0.0 - 0.02 0.001

Q_A_RAT_PIT_FILT: Pitch axis rate conroller input frequency in Hz

Pitch axis rate conroller input frequency in Hz

Range Increment Units
1 - 100 1 Hz

Q_A_RAT_YAW_P: Yaw axis rate controller P gain

Yaw axis rate controller P gain. Converts the difference between desired yaw rate and actual yaw rate into a motor speed output

Range Increment
0.10 - 0.50 0.005

Q_A_RAT_YAW_I: Yaw axis rate controller I gain

Yaw axis rate controller I gain. Corrects long-term difference in desired yaw rate vs actual yaw rate

Range Increment
0.010 - 0.05 0.01

Q_A_RAT_YAW_IMAX: Yaw axis rate controller I gain maximum

Yaw axis rate controller I gain maximum. Constrains the maximum motor output that the I gain will output

Range Increment Units
0 - 1 0.01 Percent

Q_A_RAT_YAW_D: Yaw axis rate controller D gain

Yaw axis rate controller D gain. Compensates for short-term change in desired yaw rate vs actual yaw rate

Range Increment
0.000 - 0.02 0.001

Q_A_RAT_YAW_FILT: Yaw axis rate conroller input frequency in Hz

Yaw axis rate conroller input frequency in Hz

Range Increment Units
1 - 100 1 Hz

Q_A_THR_MIX_MIN: Throttle Mix Minimum

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Throttle vs attitude control prioritisation used when landing (higher values mean we prioritise attitude control over throttle)

Range
0.1 - 0.25

Q_A_THR_MIX_MAX: Throttle Mix Maximum

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Throttle vs attitude control prioritisation used during active flight (higher values mean we prioritise attitude control over throttle)

Range
0.5 - 0.9

RC1_ Parameters

RC1_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC1_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC1_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC1_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC1_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC2_ Parameters

RC2_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC2_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC2_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC2_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC2_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC3_ Parameters

RC3_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC3_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC3_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC3_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC3_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC4_ Parameters

RC4_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC4_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC4_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC4_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC4_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC5_ Parameters

RC5_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC5_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC5_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC5_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC5_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC5_FUNCTION: Servo out function

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 RCPassThru
2 Flap
3 Flap_auto
4 Aileron
6 mount_pan
7 mount_tilt
8 mount_roll
9 mount_open
10 camera_trigger
11 release
12 mount2_pan
13 mount2_tilt
14 mount2_roll
15 mount2_open
16 DifferentialSpoiler1
17 DifferentialSpoiler2
18 AileronWithInput
19 Elevator
20 ElevatorWithInput
21 Rudder
24 Flaperon1
25 Flaperon2
26 GroundSteering
27 Parachute
28 Gripper
29 LandingGear
30 EngineRunEnable
31 HeliRSC
32 HeliTailRSC
33 Motor1
34 Motor2
35 Motor3
36 Motor4
37 Motor5
38 Motor6
39 Motor7
40 Motor8
51 RCIN1
52 RCIN2
53 RCIN3
54 RCIN4
55 RCIN5
56 RCIN6
57 RCIN7
58 RCIN8
59 RCIN9
60 RCIN10
61 RCIN11
62 RCIN12
63 RCIN13
64 RCIN14
65 RCIN15
66 RCIN16
67 Ignition
68 Choke
69 Starter
70 Throttle

RC6_ Parameters

RC6_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC6_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC6_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC6_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC6_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC6_FUNCTION: Servo out function

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 RCPassThru
2 Flap
3 Flap_auto
4 Aileron
6 mount_pan
7 mount_tilt
8 mount_roll
9 mount_open
10 camera_trigger
11 release
12 mount2_pan
13 mount2_tilt
14 mount2_roll
15 mount2_open
16 DifferentialSpoiler1
17 DifferentialSpoiler2
18 AileronWithInput
19 Elevator
20 ElevatorWithInput
21 Rudder
24 Flaperon1
25 Flaperon2
26 GroundSteering
27 Parachute
28 Gripper
29 LandingGear
30 EngineRunEnable
31 HeliRSC
32 HeliTailRSC
33 Motor1
34 Motor2
35 Motor3
36 Motor4
37 Motor5
38 Motor6
39 Motor7
40 Motor8
51 RCIN1
52 RCIN2
53 RCIN3
54 RCIN4
55 RCIN5
56 RCIN6
57 RCIN7
58 RCIN8
59 RCIN9
60 RCIN10
61 RCIN11
62 RCIN12
63 RCIN13
64 RCIN14
65 RCIN15
66 RCIN16
67 Ignition
68 Choke
69 Starter
70 Throttle

RC7_ Parameters

RC7_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC7_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC7_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC7_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC7_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC7_FUNCTION: Servo out function

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 RCPassThru
2 Flap
3 Flap_auto
4 Aileron
6 mount_pan
7 mount_tilt
8 mount_roll
9 mount_open
10 camera_trigger
11 release
12 mount2_pan
13 mount2_tilt
14 mount2_roll
15 mount2_open
16 DifferentialSpoiler1
17 DifferentialSpoiler2
18 AileronWithInput
19 Elevator
20 ElevatorWithInput
21 Rudder
24 Flaperon1
25 Flaperon2
26 GroundSteering
27 Parachute
28 Gripper
29 LandingGear
30 EngineRunEnable
31 HeliRSC
32 HeliTailRSC
33 Motor1
34 Motor2
35 Motor3
36 Motor4
37 Motor5
38 Motor6
39 Motor7
40 Motor8
51 RCIN1
52 RCIN2
53 RCIN3
54 RCIN4
55 RCIN5
56 RCIN6
57 RCIN7
58 RCIN8
59 RCIN9
60 RCIN10
61 RCIN11
62 RCIN12
63 RCIN13
64 RCIN14
65 RCIN15
66 RCIN16
67 Ignition
68 Choke
69 Starter
70 Throttle

RC8_ Parameters

RC8_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC8_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC8_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC8_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC8_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC8_FUNCTION: Servo out function

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 RCPassThru
2 Flap
3 Flap_auto
4 Aileron
6 mount_pan
7 mount_tilt
8 mount_roll
9 mount_open
10 camera_trigger
11 release
12 mount2_pan
13 mount2_tilt
14 mount2_roll
15 mount2_open
16 DifferentialSpoiler1
17 DifferentialSpoiler2
18 AileronWithInput
19 Elevator
20 ElevatorWithInput
21 Rudder
24 Flaperon1
25 Flaperon2
26 GroundSteering
27 Parachute
28 Gripper
29 LandingGear
30 EngineRunEnable
31 HeliRSC
32 HeliTailRSC
33 Motor1
34 Motor2
35 Motor3
36 Motor4
37 Motor5
38 Motor6
39 Motor7
40 Motor8
51 RCIN1
52 RCIN2
53 RCIN3
54 RCIN4
55 RCIN5
56 RCIN6
57 RCIN7
58 RCIN8
59 RCIN9
60 RCIN10
61 RCIN11
62 RCIN12
63 RCIN13
64 RCIN14
65 RCIN15
66 RCIN16
67 Ignition
68 Choke
69 Starter
70 Throttle

RC9_ Parameters

RC9_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC9_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC9_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC9_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC9_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC9_FUNCTION: Servo out function

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 RCPassThru
2 Flap
3 Flap_auto
4 Aileron
6 mount_pan
7 mount_tilt
8 mount_roll
9 mount_open
10 camera_trigger
11 release
12 mount2_pan
13 mount2_tilt
14 mount2_roll
15 mount2_open
16 DifferentialSpoiler1
17 DifferentialSpoiler2
18 AileronWithInput
19 Elevator
20 ElevatorWithInput
21 Rudder
24 Flaperon1
25 Flaperon2
26 GroundSteering
27 Parachute
28 Gripper
29 LandingGear
30 EngineRunEnable
31 HeliRSC
32 HeliTailRSC
33 Motor1
34 Motor2
35 Motor3
36 Motor4
37 Motor5
38 Motor6
39 Motor7
40 Motor8
51 RCIN1
52 RCIN2
53 RCIN3
54 RCIN4
55 RCIN5
56 RCIN6
57 RCIN7
58 RCIN8
59 RCIN9
60 RCIN10
61 RCIN11
62 RCIN12
63 RCIN13
64 RCIN14
65 RCIN15
66 RCIN16
67 Ignition
68 Choke
69 Starter
70 Throttle

RC10_ Parameters

RC10_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC10_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC10_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC10_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC10_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC10_FUNCTION: Servo out function

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 RCPassThru
2 Flap
3 Flap_auto
4 Aileron
6 mount_pan
7 mount_tilt
8 mount_roll
9 mount_open
10 camera_trigger
11 release
12 mount2_pan
13 mount2_tilt
14 mount2_roll
15 mount2_open
16 DifferentialSpoiler1
17 DifferentialSpoiler2
18 AileronWithInput
19 Elevator
20 ElevatorWithInput
21 Rudder
24 Flaperon1
25 Flaperon2
26 GroundSteering
27 Parachute
28 Gripper
29 LandingGear
30 EngineRunEnable
31 HeliRSC
32 HeliTailRSC
33 Motor1
34 Motor2
35 Motor3
36 Motor4
37 Motor5
38 Motor6
39 Motor7
40 Motor8
51 RCIN1
52 RCIN2
53 RCIN3
54 RCIN4
55 RCIN5
56 RCIN6
57 RCIN7
58 RCIN8
59 RCIN9
60 RCIN10
61 RCIN11
62 RCIN12
63 RCIN13
64 RCIN14
65 RCIN15
66 RCIN16
67 Ignition
68 Choke
69 Starter
70 Throttle

RC11_ Parameters

RC11_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC11_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC11_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC11_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC11_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC11_FUNCTION: Servo out function

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 RCPassThru
2 Flap
3 Flap_auto
4 Aileron
6 mount_pan
7 mount_tilt
8 mount_roll
9 mount_open
10 camera_trigger
11 release
12 mount2_pan
13 mount2_tilt
14 mount2_roll
15 mount2_open
16 DifferentialSpoiler1
17 DifferentialSpoiler2
18 AileronWithInput
19 Elevator
20 ElevatorWithInput
21 Rudder
24 Flaperon1
25 Flaperon2
26 GroundSteering
27 Parachute
28 Gripper
29 LandingGear
30 EngineRunEnable
31 HeliRSC
32 HeliTailRSC
33 Motor1
34 Motor2
35 Motor3
36 Motor4
37 Motor5
38 Motor6
39 Motor7
40 Motor8
51 RCIN1
52 RCIN2
53 RCIN3
54 RCIN4
55 RCIN5
56 RCIN6
57 RCIN7
58 RCIN8
59 RCIN9
60 RCIN10
61 RCIN11
62 RCIN12
63 RCIN13
64 RCIN14
65 RCIN15
66 RCIN16
67 Ignition
68 Choke
69 Starter
70 Throttle

RC12_ Parameters

RC12_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC12_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC12_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC12_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC12_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC12_FUNCTION: Servo out function

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 RCPassThru
2 Flap
3 Flap_auto
4 Aileron
6 mount_pan
7 mount_tilt
8 mount_roll
9 mount_open
10 camera_trigger
11 release
12 mount2_pan
13 mount2_tilt
14 mount2_roll
15 mount2_open
16 DifferentialSpoiler1
17 DifferentialSpoiler2
18 AileronWithInput
19 Elevator
20 ElevatorWithInput
21 Rudder
24 Flaperon1
25 Flaperon2
26 GroundSteering
27 Parachute
28 Gripper
29 LandingGear
30 EngineRunEnable
31 HeliRSC
32 HeliTailRSC
33 Motor1
34 Motor2
35 Motor3
36 Motor4
37 Motor5
38 Motor6
39 Motor7
40 Motor8
51 RCIN1
52 RCIN2
53 RCIN3
54 RCIN4
55 RCIN5
56 RCIN6
57 RCIN7
58 RCIN8
59 RCIN9
60 RCIN10
61 RCIN11
62 RCIN12
63 RCIN13
64 RCIN14
65 RCIN15
66 RCIN16
67 Ignition
68 Choke
69 Starter
70 Throttle

RC13_ Parameters

RC13_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC13_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC13_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC13_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC13_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC13_FUNCTION: Servo out function

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 RCPassThru
2 Flap
3 Flap_auto
4 Aileron
6 mount_pan
7 mount_tilt
8 mount_roll
9 mount_open
10 camera_trigger
11 release
12 mount2_pan
13 mount2_tilt
14 mount2_roll
15 mount2_open
16 DifferentialSpoiler1
17 DifferentialSpoiler2
18 AileronWithInput
19 Elevator
20 ElevatorWithInput
21 Rudder
24 Flaperon1
25 Flaperon2
26 GroundSteering
27 Parachute
28 Gripper
29 LandingGear
30 EngineRunEnable
31 HeliRSC
32 HeliTailRSC
33 Motor1
34 Motor2
35 Motor3
36 Motor4
37 Motor5
38 Motor6
39 Motor7
40 Motor8
51 RCIN1
52 RCIN2
53 RCIN3
54 RCIN4
55 RCIN5
56 RCIN6
57 RCIN7
58 RCIN8
59 RCIN9
60 RCIN10
61 RCIN11
62 RCIN12
63 RCIN13
64 RCIN14
65 RCIN15
66 RCIN16
67 Ignition
68 Choke
69 Starter
70 Throttle

RC14_ Parameters

RC14_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC14_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC14_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC14_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC14_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC14_FUNCTION: Servo out function

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 RCPassThru
2 Flap
3 Flap_auto
4 Aileron
6 mount_pan
7 mount_tilt
8 mount_roll
9 mount_open
10 camera_trigger
11 release
12 mount2_pan
13 mount2_tilt
14 mount2_roll
15 mount2_open
16 DifferentialSpoiler1
17 DifferentialSpoiler2
18 AileronWithInput
19 Elevator
20 ElevatorWithInput
21 Rudder
24 Flaperon1
25 Flaperon2
26 GroundSteering
27 Parachute
28 Gripper
29 LandingGear
30 EngineRunEnable
31 HeliRSC
32 HeliTailRSC
33 Motor1
34 Motor2
35 Motor3
36 Motor4
37 Motor5
38 Motor6
39 Motor7
40 Motor8
51 RCIN1
52 RCIN2
53 RCIN3
54 RCIN4
55 RCIN5
56 RCIN6
57 RCIN7
58 RCIN8
59 RCIN9
60 RCIN10
61 RCIN11
62 RCIN12
63 RCIN13
64 RCIN14
65 RCIN15
66 RCIN16
67 Ignition
68 Choke
69 Starter
70 Throttle

RC15_ Parameters

RC15_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC15_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC15_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC15_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC15_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC15_FUNCTION: Servo out function

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 RCPassThru
2 Flap
3 Flap_auto
4 Aileron
6 mount_pan
7 mount_tilt
8 mount_roll
9 mount_open
10 camera_trigger
11 release
12 mount2_pan
13 mount2_tilt
14 mount2_roll
15 mount2_open
16 DifferentialSpoiler1
17 DifferentialSpoiler2
18 AileronWithInput
19 Elevator
20 ElevatorWithInput
21 Rudder
24 Flaperon1
25 Flaperon2
26 GroundSteering
27 Parachute
28 Gripper
29 LandingGear
30 EngineRunEnable
31 HeliRSC
32 HeliTailRSC
33 Motor1
34 Motor2
35 Motor3
36 Motor4
37 Motor5
38 Motor6
39 Motor7
40 Motor8
51 RCIN1
52 RCIN2
53 RCIN3
54 RCIN4
55 RCIN5
56 RCIN6
57 RCIN7
58 RCIN8
59 RCIN9
60 RCIN10
61 RCIN11
62 RCIN12
63 RCIN13
64 RCIN14
65 RCIN15
66 RCIN16
67 Ignition
68 Choke
69 Starter
70 Throttle

RC16_ Parameters

RC16_MIN: RC min PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC minimum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC16_TRIM: RC trim PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC trim (neutral) PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC16_MAX: RC max PWM

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC maximum PWM pulse width. Typically 1000 is lower limit, 1500 is neutral and 2000 is upper limit.

Range Increment Units
800 - 2200 1 pwm

RC16_REV: RC reverse

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Reverse servo operation. Set to 1 for normal (forward) operation. Set to -1 to reverse this channel.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Reversed
1 Normal

RC16_DZ: RC dead-zone

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

dead zone around trim or bottom

Range Units
0 - 200 pwm

RC16_FUNCTION: Servo out function

Setting this to Disabled(0) will setup this output for control by auto missions or MAVLink servo set commands. any other value will enable the corresponding function

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 RCPassThru
2 Flap
3 Flap_auto
4 Aileron
6 mount_pan
7 mount_tilt
8 mount_roll
9 mount_open
10 camera_trigger
11 release
12 mount2_pan
13 mount2_tilt
14 mount2_roll
15 mount2_open
16 DifferentialSpoiler1
17 DifferentialSpoiler2
18 AileronWithInput
19 Elevator
20 ElevatorWithInput
21 Rudder
24 Flaperon1
25 Flaperon2
26 GroundSteering
27 Parachute
28 Gripper
29 LandingGear
30 EngineRunEnable
31 HeliRSC
32 HeliTailRSC
33 Motor1
34 Motor2
35 Motor3
36 Motor4
37 Motor5
38 Motor6
39 Motor7
40 Motor8
51 RCIN1
52 RCIN2
53 RCIN3
54 RCIN4
55 RCIN5
56 RCIN6
57 RCIN7
58 RCIN8
59 RCIN9
60 RCIN10
61 RCIN11
62 RCIN12
63 RCIN13
64 RCIN14
65 RCIN15
66 RCIN16
67 Ignition
68 Choke
69 Starter
70 Throttle

RLL2SRV_ Parameters

RLL2SRV_TCONST: Roll Time Constant

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the time constant in seconds from demanded to achieved bank angle. A value of 0.5 is a good default and will work with nearly all models. Advanced users may want to reduce this time to obtain a faster response but there is no point setting a time less than the aircraft can achieve.

Range Increment Units
0.4 - 1.0 0.1 seconds

RLL2SRV_P: Proportional Gain

This is the gain from bank angle error to aileron.

Range Increment
0.1 - 4.0 0.1

RLL2SRV_D: Damping Gain

This is the gain from roll rate to aileron. This adjusts the damping of the roll control loop. It has the same effect as RLL2SRV_D in the old PID controller but without the spikes in servo demands. This gain helps to reduce rolling in turbulence. It should be increased in 0.01 increments as too high a value can lead to a high frequency roll oscillation that could overstress the airframe.

Range Increment
0 - 0.1 0.01

RLL2SRV_I: Integrator Gain

This is the gain from the integral of bank angle to aileron. It has the same effect as RLL2SRV_I in the old PID controller. Increasing this gain causes the controller to trim out steady offsets due to an out of trim aircraft.

Range Increment
0 - 1.0 0.05

RLL2SRV_RMAX: Maximum Roll Rate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the maximum roll rate that the controller will demand (degrees/sec). Setting it to zero disables the limit. If this value is set too low, then the roll can’t keep up with the navigation demands and the plane will start weaving. If it is set too high (or disabled by setting to zero) then ailerons will get large inputs at the start of turns. A limit of 60 degrees/sec is a good default.

Range Increment Units
0 - 180 1 degrees/second

RLL2SRV_IMAX: Integrator limit

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This limits the number of degrees of aileron in centi-degrees over which the integrator will operate. At the default setting of 3000 centi-degrees, the integrator will be limited to +- 30 degrees of servo travel. The maximum servo deflection is +- 45 centi-degrees, so the default value represents a 2/3rd of the total control throw which is adequate unless the aircraft is severely out of trim.

Range Increment
0 - 4500 1

RLL2SRV_FF: Feed forward Gain

This is the gain from demanded rate to aileron output.

Range Increment
0.1 - 4.0 0.1

PTCH2SRV_ Parameters

PTCH2SRV_TCONST: Pitch Time Constant

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the time constant in seconds from demanded to achieved pitch angle. A value of 0.5 is a good default and will work with nearly all models. Advanced users may want to reduce this time to obtain a faster response but there is no point setting a time less than the aircraft can achieve.

Range Increment Units
0.4 - 1.0 0.1 seconds

PTCH2SRV_P: Proportional Gain

This is the gain from pitch angle to elevator. This gain works the same way as PTCH2SRV_P in the old PID controller and can be set to the same value.

Range Increment
0.1 - 3.0 0.1

PTCH2SRV_D: Damping Gain

This is the gain from pitch rate to elevator. This adjusts the damping of the pitch control loop. It has the same effect as PTCH2SRV_D in the old PID controller and can be set to the same value, but without the spikes in servo demands. This gain helps to reduce pitching in turbulence. Some airframes such as flying wings that have poor pitch damping can benefit from increasing this gain term. This should be increased in 0.01 increments as too high a value can lead to a high frequency pitch oscillation that could overstress the airframe.

Range Increment
0 - 0.1 0.01

PTCH2SRV_I: Integrator Gain

This is the gain applied to the integral of pitch angle. It has the same effect as PTCH2SRV_I in the old PID controller and can be set to the same value. Increasing this gain causes the controller to trim out constant offsets between demanded and measured pitch angle.

Range Increment
0 - 0.5 0.05

PTCH2SRV_RMAX_UP: Pitch up max rate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the maximum nose up pitch rate that the controller will demand (degrees/sec). Setting it to zero disables the limit.

Range Increment Units
0 - 100 1 degrees/second

PTCH2SRV_RMAX_DN: Pitch down max rate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the maximum nose down pitch rate that the controller will demand (degrees/sec). Setting it to zero disables the limit.

Range Increment Units
0 - 100 1 degrees/second

PTCH2SRV_RLL: Roll compensation

This is the gain term that is applied to the pitch rate offset calculated as required to keep the nose level during turns. The default value is 1 which will work for all models. Advanced users can use it to correct for height variation in turns. If height is lost initially in turns this can be increased in small increments of 0.05 to compensate. If height is gained initially in turns then it can be decreased.

Range Increment
0.7 - 1.5 0.05

PTCH2SRV_IMAX: Integrator limit

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This limits the number of centi-degrees of elevator over which the integrator will operate. At the default setting of 3000 centi-degrees, the integrator will be limited to +- 30 degrees of servo travel. The maximum servo deflection is +- 45 degrees, so the default value represents a 2/3rd of the total control throw which is adequate for most aircraft unless they are severely out of trim or have very limited elevator control effectiveness.

Range Increment
0 - 4500 1

PTCH2SRV_FF: Feed forward Gain

This is the gain from demanded rate to elevator output.

Range Increment
0.1 - 4.0 0.1

YAW2SRV_ Parameters

YAW2SRV_SLIP: Sideslip control gain

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the gain from measured lateral acceleration to demanded yaw rate. It should be set to zero unless active control of sideslip is desired. This will only work effectively if there is enough fuselage side area to generate a measureable lateral acceleration when the model sideslips. Flying wings and most gliders cannot use this term. This term should only be adjusted after the basic yaw damper gain YAW2SRV_DAMP is tuned and the YAW2SRV_INT integrator gain has been set. Set this gain to zero if only yaw damping is required.

Range Increment
0 - 4 0.25

YAW2SRV_INT: Sideslip control integrator

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the integral gain from lateral acceleration error. This gain should only be non-zero if active control over sideslip is desired. If active control over sideslip is required then this can be set to 1.0 as a first try.

Range Increment
0 - 2 0.25

YAW2SRV_DAMP: Yaw damping

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the gain from yaw rate to rudder. It acts as a damper on yaw motion. If a basic yaw damper is required, this gain term can be incremented, whilst leaving the YAW2SRV_SLIP and YAW2SRV_INT gains at zero. Note that unlike with a standard PID controller, if this damping term is zero then the integrator will also be disabled.

Range Increment
0 - 2 0.25

YAW2SRV_RLL: Yaw coordination gain

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the gain term that is applied to the yaw rate offset calculated as required to keep the yaw rate consistent with the turn rate for a coordinated turn. The default value is 1 which will work for all models. Advanced users can use it to correct for any tendency to yaw away from or into the turn once the turn is established. Increase to make the model yaw more initially and decrease to make the model yaw less initially. If values greater than 1.1 or less than 0.9 are required then it normally indicates a problem with the airspeed calibration.

Range Increment
0.8 - 1.2 0.05

YAW2SRV_IMAX: Integrator limit

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This limits the number of centi-degrees of rudder over which the integrator will operate. At the default setting of 1500 centi-degrees, the integrator will be limited to +- 15 degrees of servo travel. The maximum servo deflection is +- 45 degrees, so the default value represents a 1/3rd of the total control throw which is adequate for most aircraft unless they are severely out of trim or have very limited rudder control effectiveness.

Range Increment
0 - 4500 1

STEER2SRV_ Parameters

STEER2SRV_TCONST: Steering Time Constant

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the time constant in seconds from demanded to achieved steering angle. A value of 0.75 is a good default and will work with nearly all rovers. Ground steering in aircraft needs a bit smaller time constant, and a value of 0.5 is recommended for best ground handling in fixed wing aircraft. A value of 0.75 means that the controller will try to correct any deviation between the desired and actual steering angle in 0.75 seconds. Advanced users may want to reduce this time to obtain a faster response but there is no point setting a time less than the vehicle can achieve.

Range Increment Units
0.4 - 1.0 0.1 seconds

STEER2SRV_P: Steering turning gain

The proportional gain for steering. This should be approximately equal to the diameter of the turning circle of the vehicle at low speed and maximum steering angle

Range Increment
0.1 - 10.0 0.1

STEER2SRV_I: Integrator Gain

This is the gain from the integral of steering angle. Increasing this gain causes the controller to trim out steady offsets due to an out of trim vehicle.

Range Increment
0 - 1.0 0.05

STEER2SRV_D: Damping Gain

This adjusts the damping of the steering control loop. This gain helps to reduce steering jitter with vibration. It should be increased in 0.01 increments as too high a value can lead to a high frequency steering oscillation that could overstress the vehicle.

Range Increment
0 - 0.1 0.01

STEER2SRV_IMAX: Integrator limit

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This limits the number of degrees of steering in centi-degrees over which the integrator will operate. At the default setting of 1500 centi-degrees, the integrator will be limited to +- 15 degrees of servo travel. The maximum servo deflection is +- 45 centi-degrees, so the default value represents a 1/3rd of the total control throw which is adequate unless the vehicle is severely out of trim.

Range Increment
0 - 4500 1

STEER2SRV_MINSPD: Minimum speed

This is the minimum assumed ground speed in meters/second for steering. Having a minimum speed prevents oscillations when the vehicle first starts moving. The vehicle can still drive slower than this limit, but the steering calculations will be done based on this minimum speed.

Range Increment Units
0 - 5 0.1 m/s

STEER2SRV_FF: Steering feed forward

The feed forward gain for steering this is the ratio of the achieved turn rate to applied steering. A value of 1 means that the vehicle would yaw at a rate of 45 degrees per second with full steering deflection at 1m/s ground speed.

Range Increment
0.0 - 10.0 0.1

COMPASS_ Parameters

COMPASS_OFS_X: Compass offsets in milligauss on the X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Offset to be added to the compass x-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

Range Increment Units
-400 - 400 1 milligauss

COMPASS_OFS_Y: Compass offsets in milligauss on the Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Offset to be added to the compass y-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

Range Increment Units
-400 - 400 1 milligauss

COMPASS_OFS_Z: Compass offsets in milligauss on the Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Offset to be added to the compass z-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

Range Increment Units
-400 - 400 1 milligauss

COMPASS_DEC: Compass declination

An angle to compensate between the true north and magnetic north

Range Increment Units
-3.142 - 3.142 0.01 Radians

COMPASS_LEARN: Learn compass offsets automatically

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable or disable the automatic learning of compass offsets. You can enable learning either using a compass-only method that is suitable only for fixed wing aircraft or using the offsets learnt by the active EKF state estimator. If this option is enabled then the learnt offsets are saved when you disarm the vehicle.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Internal-Learning
2 EKF-Learning

COMPASS_USE: Use compass for yaw

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable or disable the use of the compass (instead of the GPS) for determining heading

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

COMPASS_AUTODEC: Auto Declination

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable or disable the automatic calculation of the declination based on gps location

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

COMPASS_MOTCT: Motor interference compensation type

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Set motor interference compensation type to disabled, throttle or current. Do not change manually.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Use Throttle
2 Use Current

COMPASS_MOT_X: Motor interference compensation for body frame X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to the compass’s x-axis values to compensate for motor interference

Range Increment Units
-1000 - 1000 1 Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

COMPASS_MOT_Y: Motor interference compensation for body frame Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to the compass’s y-axis values to compensate for motor interference

Range Increment Units
-1000 - 1000 1 Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

COMPASS_MOT_Z: Motor interference compensation for body frame Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to the compass’s z-axis values to compensate for motor interference

Range Increment Units
-1000 - 1000 1 Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

COMPASS_ORIENT: Compass orientation

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The orientation of the compass relative to the autopilot board. This will default to the right value for each board type, but can be changed if you have an external compass. See the documentation for your external compass for the right value. The correct orientation should give the X axis forward, the Y axis to the right and the Z axis down. So if your aircraft is pointing west it should show a positive value for the Y axis, and a value close to zero for the X axis. On a PX4 or Pixhawk with an external compass the correct value is zero if the compass is correctly oriented. NOTE: This orientation is combined with any AHRS_ORIENTATION setting.

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 Yaw45
2 Yaw90
3 Yaw135
4 Yaw180
5 Yaw225
6 Yaw270
7 Yaw315
8 Roll180
9 Roll180Yaw45
10 Roll180Yaw90
11 Roll180Yaw135
12 Pitch180
13 Roll180Yaw225
14 Roll180Yaw270
15 Roll180Yaw315
16 Roll90
17 Roll90Yaw45
18 Roll90Yaw90
19 Roll90Yaw135
20 Roll270
21 Roll270Yaw45
22 Roll270Yaw90
23 Roll270Yaw136
24 Pitch90
25 Pitch270
26 Pitch180Yaw90
27 Pitch180Yaw270
28 Roll90Pitch90
29 Roll180Pitch90
30 Roll270Pitch90
31 Roll90Pitch180
32 Roll270Pitch180
33 Roll90Pitch270
34 Roll180Pitch270
35 Roll270Pitch270
36 Roll90Pitch180Yaw90
37 Roll90Yaw270
38 Yaw293Pitch68Roll90

COMPASS_EXTERNAL: Compass is attached via an external cable

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Configure compass so it is attached externally. This is auto-detected on PX4 and Pixhawk. Set to 1 if the compass is externally connected. When externally connected the COMPASS_ORIENT option operates independently of the AHRS_ORIENTATION board orientation option. If set to 0 or 1 then auto-detection by bus connection can override the value. If set to 2 then auto-detection will be disabled.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Internal
1 External
2 ForcedExternal

COMPASS_OFS2_X: Compass2 offsets in milligauss on the X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Offset to be added to compass2’s x-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

Range Increment Units
-400 - 400 1 milligauss

COMPASS_OFS2_Y: Compass2 offsets in milligauss on the Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Offset to be added to compass2’s y-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

Range Increment Units
-400 - 400 1 milligauss

COMPASS_OFS2_Z: Compass2 offsets in milligauss on the Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Offset to be added to compass2’s z-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

Range Increment Units
-400 - 400 1 milligauss

COMPASS_MOT2_X: Motor interference compensation to compass2 for body frame X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to compass2’s x-axis values to compensate for motor interference

Range Increment Units
-1000 - 1000 1 Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

COMPASS_MOT2_Y: Motor interference compensation to compass2 for body frame Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to compass2’s y-axis values to compensate for motor interference

Range Increment Units
-1000 - 1000 1 Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

COMPASS_MOT2_Z: Motor interference compensation to compass2 for body frame Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to compass2’s z-axis values to compensate for motor interference

Range Increment Units
-1000 - 1000 1 Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

COMPASS_PRIMARY: Choose primary compass

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

If more than one compass is available this selects which compass is the primary. Normally 0=External, 1=Internal. If no External compass is attached this parameter is ignored

Values
Value Meaning
0 FirstCompass
1 SecondCompass
2 ThirdCompass

COMPASS_OFS3_X: Compass3 offsets in milligauss on the X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Offset to be added to compass3’s x-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

Range Increment Units
-400 - 400 1 milligauss

COMPASS_OFS3_Y: Compass3 offsets in milligauss on the Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Offset to be added to compass3’s y-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

Range Increment Units
-400 - 400 1 milligauss

COMPASS_OFS3_Z: Compass3 offsets in milligauss on the Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Offset to be added to compass3’s z-axis values to compensate for metal in the frame

Range Increment Units
-400 - 400 1 milligauss

COMPASS_MOT3_X: Motor interference compensation to compass3 for body frame X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to compass3’s x-axis values to compensate for motor interference

Range Increment Units
-1000 - 1000 1 Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

COMPASS_MOT3_Y: Motor interference compensation to compass3 for body frame Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to compass3’s y-axis values to compensate for motor interference

Range Increment Units
-1000 - 1000 1 Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

COMPASS_MOT3_Z: Motor interference compensation to compass3 for body frame Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Multiplied by the current throttle and added to compass3’s z-axis values to compensate for motor interference

Range Increment Units
-1000 - 1000 1 Offset per Amp or at Full Throttle

COMPASS_DEV_ID: Compass device id

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Compass device id. Automatically detected, do not set manually

COMPASS_DEV_ID2: Compass2 device id

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Second compass’s device id. Automatically detected, do not set manually

COMPASS_DEV_ID3: Compass3 device id

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Third compass’s device id. Automatically detected, do not set manually

COMPASS_USE2: Compass2 used for yaw

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable or disable the second compass for determining heading.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

COMPASS_ORIENT2: Compass2 orientation

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The orientation of the second compass relative to the frame (if external) or autopilot board (if internal).

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 Yaw45
2 Yaw90
3 Yaw135
4 Yaw180
5 Yaw225
6 Yaw270
7 Yaw315
8 Roll180
9 Roll180Yaw45
10 Roll180Yaw90
11 Roll180Yaw135
12 Pitch180
13 Roll180Yaw225
14 Roll180Yaw270
15 Roll180Yaw315
16 Roll90
17 Roll90Yaw45
18 Roll90Yaw90
19 Roll90Yaw135
20 Roll270
21 Roll270Yaw45
22 Roll270Yaw90
23 Roll270Yaw136
24 Pitch90
25 Pitch270
26 Pitch180Yaw90
27 Pitch180Yaw270
28 Roll90Pitch90
29 Roll180Pitch90
30 Roll270Pitch90
31 Roll90Pitch180
32 Roll270Pitch180
33 Roll90Pitch270
34 Roll180Pitch270
35 Roll270Pitch270
36 Roll90Pitch180Yaw90
37 Roll90Yaw270
38 Yaw293Pitch68Roll90

COMPASS_EXTERN2: Compass2 is attached via an external cable

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Configure second compass so it is attached externally. This is auto-detected on PX4 and Pixhawk. If set to 0 or 1 then auto-detection by bus connection can override the value. If set to 2 then auto-detection will be disabled.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Internal
1 External
2 ForcedExternal

COMPASS_USE3: Compass3 used for yaw

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable or disable the third compass for determining heading.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

COMPASS_ORIENT3: Compass3 orientation

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The orientation of the third compass relative to the frame (if external) or autopilot board (if internal).

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 Yaw45
2 Yaw90
3 Yaw135
4 Yaw180
5 Yaw225
6 Yaw270
7 Yaw315
8 Roll180
9 Roll180Yaw45
10 Roll180Yaw90
11 Roll180Yaw135
12 Pitch180
13 Roll180Yaw225
14 Roll180Yaw270
15 Roll180Yaw315
16 Roll90
17 Roll90Yaw45
18 Roll90Yaw90
19 Roll90Yaw135
20 Roll270
21 Roll270Yaw45
22 Roll270Yaw90
23 Roll270Yaw136
24 Pitch90
25 Pitch270
26 Pitch180Yaw90
27 Pitch180Yaw270
28 Roll90Pitch90
29 Roll180Pitch90
30 Roll270Pitch90
31 Roll90Pitch180
32 Roll270Pitch180
33 Roll90Pitch270
34 Roll180Pitch270
35 Roll270Pitch270
36 Roll90Pitch180Yaw90
37 Roll90Yaw270
38 Yaw293Pitch68Roll90

COMPASS_EXTERN3: Compass3 is attached via an external cable

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Configure third compass so it is attached externally. This is auto-detected on PX4 and Pixhawk. If set to 0 or 1 then auto-detection by bus connection can override the value. If set to 2 then auto-detection will be disabled.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Internal
1 External
2 ForcedExternal

COMPASS_DIA_X: Compass soft-iron diagonal X component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

DIA_X in the compass soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_DIA_Y: Compass soft-iron diagonal Y component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

DIA_Y in the compass soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_DIA_Z: Compass soft-iron diagonal Z component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

DIA_Z in the compass soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_ODI_X: Compass soft-iron off-diagonal X component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ODI_X in the compass soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_ODI_Y: Compass soft-iron off-diagonal Y component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ODI_Y in the compass soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_ODI_Z: Compass soft-iron off-diagonal Z component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ODI_Z in the compass soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_DIA2_X: Compass2 soft-iron diagonal X component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

DIA_X in the compass2 soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_DIA2_Y: Compass2 soft-iron diagonal Y component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

DIA_Y in the compass2 soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_DIA2_Z: Compass2 soft-iron diagonal Z component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

DIA_Z in the compass2 soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_ODI2_X: Compass2 soft-iron off-diagonal X component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ODI_X in the compass2 soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_ODI2_Y: Compass2 soft-iron off-diagonal Y component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ODI_Y in the compass2 soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_ODI2_Z: Compass2 soft-iron off-diagonal Z component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ODI_Z in the compass2 soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_DIA3_X: Compass3 soft-iron diagonal X component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

DIA_X in the compass3 soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_DIA3_Y: Compass3 soft-iron diagonal Y component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

DIA_Y in the compass3 soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_DIA3_Z: Compass3 soft-iron diagonal Z component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

DIA_Z in the compass3 soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_ODI3_X: Compass3 soft-iron off-diagonal X component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ODI_X in the compass3 soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_ODI3_Y: Compass3 soft-iron off-diagonal Y component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ODI_Y in the compass3 soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_ODI3_Z: Compass3 soft-iron off-diagonal Z component

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ODI_Z in the compass3 soft-iron calibration matrix: [[DIA_X, ODI_X, ODI_Y], [ODI_X, DIA_Y, ODI_Z], [ODI_Y, ODI_Z, DIA_Z]]

COMPASS_CAL_FIT: Compass calibration fitness

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the fitness level required for a successful compass calibration. A lower value makes for a stricter fit (less likely to pass). This is the value used for the primary magnetometer. Other magnetometers get double the value.

Range Values Increment
4 - 32
Value Meaning
4 Very Strict
8 Default
16 Relaxed
32 Very Relaxed
0.1

SCHED_ Parameters

SCHED_DEBUG: Scheduler debug level

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Set to non-zero to enable scheduler debug messages. When set to show “Slips” the scheduler will display a message whenever a scheduled task is delayed due to too much CPU load. When set to ShowOverruns the scheduled will display a message whenever a task takes longer than the limit promised in the task table.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
2 ShowSlips
3 ShowOverruns

SCHED_LOOP_RATE: Scheduling main loop rate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the rate of the main control loop in Hz. This should only be changed by developers. This only takes effect on restart

Values RebootRequired
Value Meaning
50 50Hz
100 100Hz
200 200Hz
250 250Hz
300 300Hz
400 400Hz
True

RCMAP_ Parameters

RCMAP_ROLL: Roll channel

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Roll channel number. This is useful when you have a RC transmitter that can’t change the channel order easily. Roll is normally on channel 1, but you can move it to any channel with this parameter. Reboot is required for changes to take effect.

Range Increment RebootRequired
1 - 8 1 True

RCMAP_PITCH: Pitch channel

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Pitch channel number. This is useful when you have a RC transmitter that can’t change the channel order easily. Pitch is normally on channel 2, but you can move it to any channel with this parameter. Reboot is required for changes to take effect.

Range Increment RebootRequired
1 - 8 1 True

RCMAP_THROTTLE: Throttle channel

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Throttle channel number. This is useful when you have a RC transmitter that can’t change the channel order easily. Throttle is normally on channel 3, but you can move it to any channel with this parameter. Warning APM 2.X: Changing the throttle channel could produce unexpected fail-safe results if connection between receiver and on-board PPM Encoder is lost. Disabling on-board PPM Encoder is recommended. Reboot is required for changes to take effect.

Range Increment RebootRequired
1 - 8 1 True

RCMAP_YAW: Yaw channel

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Yaw channel number. This is useful when you have a RC transmitter that can’t change the channel order easily. Yaw (also known as rudder) is normally on channel 4, but you can move it to any channel with this parameter. Reboot is required for changes to take effect.

Range Increment RebootRequired
1 - 8 1 True

SR0_ Parameters

SR0_RAW_SENS: Raw sensor stream rate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw sensor stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR0_EXT_STAT: Extended status stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extended status stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR0_RC_CHAN: RC Channel stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC Channel stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR0_RAW_CTRL: Raw Control stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw Control stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR0_POSITION: Position stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Position stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR0_EXTRA1: Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR0_EXTRA2: Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR0_EXTRA3: Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR0_PARAMS: Parameter stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Parameter stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR0_ADSB: ADSB stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ADSB stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 50 1 Hz

SR1_ Parameters

SR1_RAW_SENS: Raw sensor stream rate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw sensor stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR1_EXT_STAT: Extended status stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extended status stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR1_RC_CHAN: RC Channel stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC Channel stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR1_RAW_CTRL: Raw Control stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw Control stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR1_POSITION: Position stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Position stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR1_EXTRA1: Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR1_EXTRA2: Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR1_EXTRA3: Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR1_PARAMS: Parameter stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Parameter stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR1_ADSB: ADSB stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ADSB stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 50 1 Hz

SR2_ Parameters

SR2_RAW_SENS: Raw sensor stream rate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw sensor stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR2_EXT_STAT: Extended status stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extended status stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR2_RC_CHAN: RC Channel stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC Channel stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR2_RAW_CTRL: Raw Control stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw Control stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR2_POSITION: Position stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Position stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR2_EXTRA1: Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR2_EXTRA2: Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR2_EXTRA3: Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR2_PARAMS: Parameter stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Parameter stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR2_ADSB: ADSB stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ADSB stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 50 1 Hz

SR3_ Parameters

SR3_RAW_SENS: Raw sensor stream rate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw sensor stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR3_EXT_STAT: Extended status stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extended status stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR3_RC_CHAN: RC Channel stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

RC Channel stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR3_RAW_CTRL: Raw Control stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Raw Control stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR3_POSITION: Position stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Position stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR3_EXTRA1: Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 1 stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR3_EXTRA2: Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 2 stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR3_EXTRA3: Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Extra data type 3 stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR3_PARAMS: Parameter stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Parameter stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 10 1 Hz

SR3_ADSB: ADSB stream rate to ground station

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

ADSB stream rate to ground station

Range Increment Units
0 - 50 1 Hz

INS_ Parameters

INS_PRODUCT_ID: IMU Product ID

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

unused

INS_GYROFFS_X: Gyro offsets of X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro sensor offsets of X axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

Units
rad/s

INS_GYROFFS_Y: Gyro offsets of Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro sensor offsets of Y axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

Units
rad/s

INS_GYROFFS_Z: Gyro offsets of Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro sensor offsets of Z axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

Units
rad/s

INS_GYR2OFFS_X: Gyro2 offsets of X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro2 sensor offsets of X axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

Units
rad/s

INS_GYR2OFFS_Y: Gyro2 offsets of Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro2 sensor offsets of Y axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

Units
rad/s

INS_GYR2OFFS_Z: Gyro2 offsets of Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro2 sensor offsets of Z axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

Units
rad/s

INS_GYR3OFFS_X: Gyro3 offsets of X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro3 sensor offsets of X axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

Units
rad/s

INS_GYR3OFFS_Y: Gyro3 offsets of Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro3 sensor offsets of Y axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

Units
rad/s

INS_GYR3OFFS_Z: Gyro3 offsets of Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro3 sensor offsets of Z axis. This is setup on each boot during gyro calibrations

Units
rad/s

INS_ACCSCAL_X: Accelerometer scaling of X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer scaling of X axis. Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

Range
0.8 - 1.2

INS_ACCSCAL_Y: Accelerometer scaling of Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer scaling of Y axis Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

Range
0.8 - 1.2

INS_ACCSCAL_Z: Accelerometer scaling of Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer scaling of Z axis Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

Range
0.8 - 1.2

INS_ACCOFFS_X: Accelerometer offsets of X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer offsets of X axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

Range Units
-3.5 - 3.5 m/s/s

INS_ACCOFFS_Y: Accelerometer offsets of Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer offsets of Y axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

Range Units
-3.5 - 3.5 m/s/s

INS_ACCOFFS_Z: Accelerometer offsets of Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer offsets of Z axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

Range Units
-3.5 - 3.5 m/s/s

INS_ACC2SCAL_X: Accelerometer2 scaling of X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer2 scaling of X axis. Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

Range
0.8 - 1.2

INS_ACC2SCAL_Y: Accelerometer2 scaling of Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer2 scaling of Y axis Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

Range
0.8 - 1.2

INS_ACC2SCAL_Z: Accelerometer2 scaling of Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer2 scaling of Z axis Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

Range
0.8 - 1.2

INS_ACC2OFFS_X: Accelerometer2 offsets of X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer2 offsets of X axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

Range Units
-3.5 - 3.5 m/s/s

INS_ACC2OFFS_Y: Accelerometer2 offsets of Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer2 offsets of Y axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

Range Units
-3.5 - 3.5 m/s/s

INS_ACC2OFFS_Z: Accelerometer2 offsets of Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer2 offsets of Z axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

Range Units
-3.5 - 3.5 m/s/s

INS_ACC3SCAL_X: Accelerometer3 scaling of X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer3 scaling of X axis. Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

Range
0.8 - 1.2

INS_ACC3SCAL_Y: Accelerometer3 scaling of Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer3 scaling of Y axis Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

Range
0.8 - 1.2

INS_ACC3SCAL_Z: Accelerometer3 scaling of Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer3 scaling of Z axis Calculated during acceleration calibration routine

Range
0.8 - 1.2

INS_ACC3OFFS_X: Accelerometer3 offsets of X axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer3 offsets of X axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

Range Units
-3.5 - 3.5 m/s/s

INS_ACC3OFFS_Y: Accelerometer3 offsets of Y axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer3 offsets of Y axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

Range Units
-3.5 - 3.5 m/s/s

INS_ACC3OFFS_Z: Accelerometer3 offsets of Z axis

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer3 offsets of Z axis. This is setup using the acceleration calibration or level operations

Range Units
-3.5 - 3.5 m/s/s

INS_GYRO_FILTER: Gyro filter cutoff frequency

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Filter cutoff frequency for gyroscopes. This can be set to a lower value to try to cope with very high vibration levels in aircraft. This option takes effect on the next reboot. A value of zero means no filtering (not recommended!)

Range Units
0 - 127 Hz

INS_ACCEL_FILTER: Accel filter cutoff frequency

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Filter cutoff frequency for accelerometers. This can be set to a lower value to try to cope with very high vibration levels in aircraft. This option takes effect on the next reboot. A value of zero means no filtering (not recommended!)

Range Units
0 - 127 Hz

INS_USE: Use first IMU for attitude, velocity and position estimates

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Use first IMU for attitude, velocity and position estimates

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

INS_USE2: Use second IMU for attitude, velocity and position estimates

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Use second IMU for attitude, velocity and position estimates

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

INS_USE3: Use third IMU for attitude, velocity and position estimates

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Use third IMU for attitude, velocity and position estimates

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

INS_STILL_THRESH: Stillness threshold for detecting if we are moving

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Threshold to tolerate vibration to determine if vehicle is motionless. This depends on the frame type and if there is a constant vibration due to motors before launch or after landing. Total motionless is about 0.05. Suggested values: Planes/rover use 0.1, multirotors use 1, tradHeli uses 5

Range
0.05 - 50

INS_GYR_CAL: Gyro Calibration scheme

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Conrols when automatic gyro calibration is performed

Values
Value Meaning
0 Never
1 Start-up only

INS_TRIM_OPTION: Accel cal trim option

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Specifies how the accel cal routine determines the trims

Values
Value Meaning
0 Don’t adjust the trims
1 Assume first orientation was level
2 Assume ACC_BODYFIX is perfectly aligned to the vehicle

INS_ACC_BODYFIX: Body-fixed accelerometer

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The body-fixed accelerometer to be used for trim calculation

Values
Value Meaning
1 IMU 1
2 IMU 2
3 IMU 3

INS_POS1_X: IMU accelerometer X position

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

X position of the first IMU Accelerometer in body frame. Positive X is forward of the origin. Attention: The IMU should be located as close to the vehicle c.g. as practical so that the value of this parameter is minimised. Failure to do so can result in noisy navigation velocity measurements due to vibration and IMU gyro noise. If the IMU cannot be moved and velocity noise is a problem, a location closer to the IMU can be used as the body frame origin.

Units
m

INS_POS1_Y: IMU accelerometer Y position

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Y position of the first IMU accelerometer in body frame. Positive Y is to the right of the origin. Attention: The IMU should be located as close to the vehicle c.g. as practical so that the value of this parameter is minimised. Failure to do so can result in noisy navigation velocity measurements due to vibration and IMU gyro noise. If the IMU cannot be moved and velocity noise is a problem, a location closer to the IMU can be used as the body frame origin.

Units
m

INS_POS1_Z: IMU accelerometer Z position

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Z position of the first IMU accelerometer in body frame. Positive Z is down from the origin. Attention: The IMU should be located as close to the vehicle c.g. as practical so that the value of this parameter is minimised. Failure to do so can result in noisy navigation velocity measurements due to vibration and IMU gyro noise. If the IMU cannot be moved and velocity noise is a problem, a location closer to the IMU can be used as the body frame origin.

Units
m

INS_POS2_X: IMU accelerometer X position

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

X position of the second IMU accelerometer in body frame. Positive X is forward of the origin. Attention: The IMU should be located as close to the vehicle c.g. as practical so that the value of this parameter is minimised. Failure to do so can result in noisy navigation velocity measurements due to vibration and IMU gyro noise. If the IMU cannot be moved and velocity noise is a problem, a location closer to the IMU can be used as the body frame origin.

Units
m

INS_POS2_Y: IMU accelerometer Y position

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Y position of the second IMU accelerometer in body frame. Positive Y is to the right of the origin. Attention: The IMU should be located as close to the vehicle c.g. as practical so that the value of this parameter is minimised. Failure to do so can result in noisy navigation velocity measurements due to vibration and IMU gyro noise. If the IMU cannot be moved and velocity noise is a problem, a location closer to the IMU can be used as the body frame origin.

Units
m

INS_POS2_Z: IMU accelerometer Z position

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Z position of the second IMU accelerometer in body frame. Positive Z is down from the origin. Attention: The IMU should be located as close to the vehicle c.g. as practical so that the value of this parameter is minimised. Failure to do so can result in noisy navigation velocity measurements due to vibration and IMU gyro noise. If the IMU cannot be moved and velocity noise is a problem, a location closer to the IMU can be used as the body frame origin.

Units
m

INS_POS3_X: IMU accelerometer X position

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

X position of the third IMU accelerometer in body frame. Positive X is forward of the origin. Attention: The IMU should be located as close to the vehicle c.g. as practical so that the value of this parameter is minimised. Failure to do so can result in noisy navigation velocity measurements due to vibration and IMU gyro noise. If the IMU cannot be moved and velocity noise is a problem, a location closer to the IMU can be used as the body frame origin.

Units
m

INS_POS3_Y: IMU accelerometer Y position

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Y position of the third IMU accelerometer in body frame. Positive Y is to the right of the origin. Attention: The IMU should be located as close to the vehicle c.g. as practical so that the value of this parameter is minimised. Failure to do so can result in noisy navigation velocity measurements due to vibration and IMU gyro noise. If the IMU cannot be moved and velocity noise is a problem, a location closer to the IMU can be used as the body frame origin.

Units
m

INS_POS3_Z: IMU accelerometer Z position

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Z position of the third IMU accelerometer in body frame. Positive Z is down from the origin. Attention: The IMU should be located as close to the vehicle c.g. as practical so that the value of this parameter is minimised. Failure to do so can result in noisy navigation velocity measurements due to vibration and IMU gyro noise. If the IMU cannot be moved and velocity noise is a problem, a location closer to the IMU can be used as the body frame origin.

Units
m

INS_GYR_ID: Gyro ID

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro sensor ID, taking into account its type, bus and instance

ReadOnly
True

INS_GYR2_ID: Gyro2 ID

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro2 sensor ID, taking into account its type, bus and instance

ReadOnly
True

INS_GYR3_ID: Gyro3 ID

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Gyro3 sensor ID, taking into account its type, bus and instance

ReadOnly
True

INS_ACC_ID: Accelerometer ID

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer sensor ID, taking into account its type, bus and instance

ReadOnly
True

INS_ACC2_ID: Accelerometer2 ID

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer2 sensor ID, taking into account its type, bus and instance

ReadOnly
True

INS_ACC3_ID: Accelerometer3 ID

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Accelerometer3 sensor ID, taking into account its type, bus and instance

ReadOnly
True

INS_FAST_SAMPLE: Fast sampling mask

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Mask of IMUs to enable fast sampling on, if available

AHRS_ Parameters

AHRS_GPS_GAIN: AHRS GPS gain

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls how how much to use the GPS to correct the attitude. This should never be set to zero for a plane as it would result in the plane losing control in turns. For a plane please use the default value of 1.0.

Range Increment
0.0 - 1.0 .01

AHRS_GPS_USE: AHRS use GPS for navigation

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls whether to use dead-reckoning or GPS based navigation. If set to 0 then the GPS won’t be used for navigation, and only dead reckoning will be used. A value of zero should never be used for normal flight.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

AHRS_YAW_P: Yaw P

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the weight the compass or GPS has on the heading. A higher value means the heading will track the yaw source (GPS or compass) more rapidly.

Range Increment
0.1 - 0.4 .01

AHRS_RP_P: AHRS RP_P

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls how fast the accelerometers correct the attitude

Range Increment
0.1 - 0.4 .01

AHRS_WIND_MAX: Maximum wind

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the maximum allowable difference between ground speed and airspeed. This allows the plane to cope with a failing airspeed sensor. A value of zero means to use the airspeed as is.

Range Increment Units
0 - 127 1 m/s

AHRS_TRIM_X: AHRS Trim Roll

Compensates for the roll angle difference between the control board and the frame. Positive values make the vehicle roll right.

Range Increment Units
-0.1745 - +0.1745 0.01 Radians

AHRS_TRIM_Y: AHRS Trim Pitch

Compensates for the pitch angle difference between the control board and the frame. Positive values make the vehicle pitch up/back.

Range Increment Units
-0.1745 - +0.1745 0.01 Radians

AHRS_TRIM_Z: AHRS Trim Yaw

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Not Used

Range Increment Units
-0.1745 - +0.1745 0.01 Radians

AHRS_ORIENTATION: Board Orientation

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Overall board orientation relative to the standard orientation for the board type. This rotates the IMU and compass readings to allow the board to be oriented in your vehicle at any 90 or 45 degree angle. This option takes affect on next boot. After changing you will need to re-level your vehicle.

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 Yaw45
2 Yaw90
3 Yaw135
4 Yaw180
5 Yaw225
6 Yaw270
7 Yaw315
8 Roll180
9 Roll180Yaw45
10 Roll180Yaw90
11 Roll180Yaw135
12 Pitch180
13 Roll180Yaw225
14 Roll180Yaw270
15 Roll180Yaw315
16 Roll90
17 Roll90Yaw45
18 Roll90Yaw90
19 Roll90Yaw135
20 Roll270
21 Roll270Yaw45
22 Roll270Yaw90
23 Roll270Yaw136
24 Pitch90
25 Pitch270
26 Pitch180Yaw90
27 Pitch180Yaw270
28 Roll90Pitch90
29 Roll180Pitch90
30 Roll270Pitch90
31 Roll90Pitch180
32 Roll270Pitch180
33 Roll90Pitch270
34 Roll180Pitch270
35 Roll270Pitch270
36 Roll90Pitch180Yaw90
37 Roll90Yaw270

AHRS_COMP_BETA: AHRS Velocity Complementary Filter Beta Coefficient

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the time constant for the cross-over frequency used to fuse AHRS (airspeed and heading) and GPS data to estimate ground velocity. Time constant is 0.1/beta. A larger time constant will use GPS data less and a small time constant will use air data less.

Range Increment
0.001 - 0.5 .01

AHRS_GPS_MINSATS: AHRS GPS Minimum satellites

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Minimum number of satellites visible to use GPS for velocity based corrections attitude correction. This defaults to 6, which is about the point at which the velocity numbers from a GPS become too unreliable for accurate correction of the accelerometers.

Range Increment
0 - 10 1

AHRS_EKF_TYPE: Use NavEKF Kalman filter for attitude and position estimation

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls whether the NavEKF Kalman filter is used for attitude and position estimation and whether fallback to the DCM algorithm is allowed. Note that on copters “disabled” is not available, and will be the same as “enabled - no fallback”

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled
2 Enable EKF2

ARSPD_ Parameters

ARSPD_ENABLE: Airspeed enable

enable airspeed sensor

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disable
1 Enable

ARSPD_USE: Airspeed use

use airspeed for flight control

Values
Value Meaning
1 Use
0 Don’t Use

ARSPD_OFFSET: Airspeed offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Airspeed calibration offset

Increment
0.1

ARSPD_RATIO: Airspeed ratio

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Airspeed calibration ratio

Increment
0.1

ARSPD_PIN: Airspeed pin

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The analog pin number that the airspeed sensor is connected to. Set this to 0..9 for the APM2 analog pins. Set to 64 on an APM1 for the dedicated airspeed port on the end of the board. Set to 11 on PX4 for the analog airspeed port. Set to 15 on the Pixhawk for the analog airspeed port. Set to 65 on the PX4 or Pixhawk for an EagleTree or MEAS I2C airspeed sensor.

ARSPD_AUTOCAL: Automatic airspeed ratio calibration

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

If this is enabled then the APM will automatically adjust the ARSPD_RATIO during flight, based upon an estimation filter using ground speed and true airspeed. The automatic calibration will save the new ratio to EEPROM every 2 minutes if it changes by more than 5%. This option should be enabled for a calibration flight then disabled again when calibration is complete. Leaving it enabled all the time is not recommended.

ARSPD_TUBE_ORDER: Control pitot tube order

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter allows you to control whether the order in which the tubes are attached to your pitot tube matters. If you set this to 0 then the top connector on the sensor needs to be the dynamic pressure. If set to 1 then the bottom connector needs to be the dynamic pressure. If set to 2 (the default) then the airspeed driver will accept either order. The reason you may wish to specify the order is it will allow your airspeed sensor to detect if the aircraft it receiving excessive pressure on the static port, which would otherwise be seen as a positive airspeed.

ARSPD_SKIP_CAL: Skip airspeed calibration on startup

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter allows you to skip airspeed offset calibration on startup, instead using the offset from the last calibration. This may be desirable if the offset variance between flights for your sensor is low and you want to avoid having to cover the pitot tube on each boot.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disable
1 Enable

ARSPD_PSI_RANGE: The PSI range of the device

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter allows you to to set the PSI (pounds per square inch) range for your sensor. You should not change this unless you examine the datasheet for your device

TECS_ Parameters

TECS_CLMB_MAX: Maximum Climb Rate (metres/sec)

This is the best climb rate that the aircraft can achieve with the throttle set to THR_MAX and the airspeed set to the default value. For electric aircraft make sure this number can be achieved towards the end of flight when the battery voltage has reduced. The setting of this parameter can be checked by commanding a positive altitude change of 100m in loiter, RTL or guided mode. If the throttle required to climb is close to THR_MAX and the aircraft is maintaining airspeed, then this parameter is set correctly. If the airspeed starts to reduce, then the parameter is set to high, and if the throttle demand require to climb and maintain speed is noticeably less than THR_MAX, then either CLMB_MAX should be increased or THR_MAX reduced.

Range Increment
0.1 - 20.0 0.1

TECS_SINK_MIN: Minimum Sink Rate (metres/sec)

This is the sink rate of the aircraft with the throttle set to THR_MIN and the same airspeed as used to measure CLMB_MAX.

Range Increment
0.1 - 10.0 0.1

TECS_TIME_CONST: Controller time constant (sec)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the time constant of the TECS control algorithm. Smaller values make it faster to respond, large values make it slower to respond.

Range Increment
3.0 - 10.0 0.2

TECS_THR_DAMP: Controller throttle damping

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the damping gain for the throttle demand loop. Increase to add damping to correct for oscillations in speed and height.

Range Increment
0.1 - 1.0 0.1

TECS_INTEG_GAIN: Controller integrator

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the integrator gain on the control loop. Increase to increase the rate at which speed and height offsets are trimmed out

Range Increment
0.0 - 0.5 0.02

TECS_VERT_ACC: Vertical Acceleration Limit (metres/sec^2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the maximum vertical acceleration either up or down that the controller will use to correct speed or height errors.

Range Increment
1.0 - 10.0 0.5

TECS_HGT_OMEGA: Height complementary filter frequency (radians/sec)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the cross-over frequency of the complementary filter used to fuse vertical acceleration and baro alt to obtain an estimate of height rate and height.

Range Increment
1.0 - 5.0 0.05

TECS_SPD_OMEGA: Speed complementary filter frequency (radians/sec)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the cross-over frequency of the complementary filter used to fuse longitudinal acceleration and airspeed to obtain a lower noise and lag estimate of airspeed.

Range Increment
0.5 - 2.0 0.05

TECS_RLL2THR: Bank angle compensation gain

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Increasing this gain turn increases the amount of throttle that will be used to compensate for the additional drag created by turning. Ideally this should be set to approximately 10 x the extra sink rate in m/s created by a 45 degree bank turn. Increase this gain if the aircraft initially loses energy in turns and reduce if the aircraft initially gains energy in turns. Efficient high aspect-ratio aircraft (eg powered sailplanes) can use a lower value, whereas inefficient low aspect-ratio models (eg delta wings) can use a higher value.

Range Increment
5.0 - 30.0 1.0

TECS_SPDWEIGHT: Weighting applied to speed control

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter adjusts the amount of weighting that the pitch control applies to speed vs height errors. Setting it to 0.0 will cause the pitch control to control height and ignore speed errors. This will normally improve height accuracy but give larger airspeed errors. Setting it to 2.0 will cause the pitch control loop to control speed and ignore height errors. This will normally reduce airsped errors, but give larger height errors. A value of 1.0 gives a balanced response and is the default.

Range Increment
0.0 - 2.0 0.1

TECS_PTCH_DAMP: Controller pitch damping

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the damping gain for the pitch demand loop. Increase to add damping to correct for oscillations in speed and height.

Range Increment
0.1 - 1.0 0.1

TECS_SINK_MAX: Maximum Descent Rate (metres/sec)

This sets the maximum descent rate that the controller will use. If this value is too large, the aircraft will reach the pitch angle limit first and be unable to achieve the descent rate. This should be set to a value that can be achieved at the lower pitch angle limit.

Range Increment
0.0 - 20.0 0.1

TECS_LAND_ARSPD: Airspeed during landing approach (m/s)

When performing an autonomus landing, this value is used as the goal airspeed during approach. Note that this parameter is not useful if your platform does not have an airspeed sensor (use TECS_LAND_THR instead). If negative then this value is not used during landing.

Range Increment
-1 - 127 1

TECS_LAND_THR: Cruise throttle during landing approach (percentage)

Use this parameter instead of LAND_ARSPD if your platform does not have an airspeed sensor. It is the cruise throttle during landing approach. If this value is negative then it is disabled and TECS_LAND_ARSPD is used instead.

Range Increment
-1 - 100 0.1

TECS_LAND_SPDWGT: Weighting applied to speed control during landing.

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Same as SPDWEIGHT parameter, with the exception that this parameter is applied during landing flight stages. A value closer to 2 will result in the plane ignoring height error during landing and our experience has been that the plane will therefore keep the nose up – sometimes good for a glider landing (with the side effect that you will likely glide a ways past the landing point). A value closer to 0 results in the plane ignoring speed error – use caution when lowering the value below 1 – ignoring speed could result in a stall. Values between 0 and 2 are valid values for a fixed landing weight. When using -1 the weight will be scaled during the landing. At the start of the landing approach it starts with TECS_SPDWEIGHT and scales down to 0 by the time you reach the land point. Example: Halfway down the landing approach you’ll effectively have a weight of TECS_SPDWEIGHT/2.

Range Increment
-1.0 - 2.0 0.1

TECS_PITCH_MAX: Maximum pitch in auto flight

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls maximum pitch up in automatic throttle modes. If this is set to zero then LIM_PITCH_MAX is used instead. The purpose of this parameter is to allow the use of a smaller pitch range when in automatic flight than what is used in FBWA mode.

Range Increment
0 - 45 1

TECS_PITCH_MIN: Minimum pitch in auto flight

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls minimum pitch in automatic throttle modes. If this is set to zero then LIM_PITCH_MIN is used instead. The purpose of this parameter is to allow the use of a smaller pitch range when in automatic flight than what is used in FBWA mode. Note that TECS_PITCH_MIN should be a negative number.

Range Increment
-45 - 0 1

TECS_LAND_SINK: Sink rate for final landing stage

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The sink rate in meters/second for the final stage of landing.

Range Increment
0.0 - 2.0 0.1

TECS_LAND_TCONST: Land controller time constant (sec)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the time constant of the TECS control algorithm when in final landing stage of flight. It should be smaller than TECS_TIME_CONST to allow for faster flare

Range Increment
1.0 - 5.0 0.2

TECS_LAND_DAMP: Controller sink rate to pitch gain during flare

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the sink rate gain for the pitch demand loop when in final landing stage of flight. It should be larger than TECS_PTCH_DAMP to allow for better sink rate control during flare.

Range Increment
0.1 - 1.0 0.1

TECS_LAND_PMAX: Maximum pitch during final stage of landing

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This limits the pitch used during the final stage of automatic landing. During the final landing stage most planes need to keep their pitch small to avoid stalling. A maximum of 10 degrees is usually good. A value of zero means to use the normal pitch limits.

Range Increment
-5 - 40 1

TECS_APPR_SMAX: Sink rate max for landing approach stage

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The sink rate max for the landing approach stage of landing. This will need to be large for steep landing approaches especially when using reverse thrust. If 0, then use TECS_SINK_MAX.

Range Increment Units
0.0 - 20.0 0.1 m/s

TECS_LAND_SRC: Land sink rate change

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

When zero, the flare sink rate (TECS_LAND_SINK) is a fixed sink demand. With this enabled the flare sinkrate will increase/decrease the flare sink demand as you get further beyond the LAND waypoint. Has no effect before the waypoint. This value is added to TECS_LAND_SINK proportional to distance traveled after wp. With an increasing sink rate you can still land in a given distance if you’re traveling too fast and cruise passed the land point. A positive value will force the plane to land sooner proportional to distance passed land point. A negative number will tell the plane to slowly climb allowing for a pitched-up stall landing. Recommend 0.2 as initial value.

Range Increment Units
-2.0 - 2.0 0.1 m/s/m

TECS_LAND_TDAMP: Controller throttle damping when landing

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the damping gain for the throttle demand loop during and auto-landing. Same as TECS_THR_DAMP but only in effect during an auto-land. Increase to add damping to correct for oscillations in speed and height. When set to 0 landing throttle damp is controlled by TECS_THR_DAMP.

Range Increment
0.1 - 1.0 0.1

TECS_LAND_IGAIN: Controller integrator during landing

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the integrator gain on the control loop during landing. When set to 0 then TECS_INTEG_GAIN is used. Increase to increase the rate at which speed and height offsets are trimmed out. Typically values lower than TECS_INTEG_GAIN work best

Range Increment
0.0 - 0.5 0.02

TECS_TKOFF_IGAIN: Controller integrator during takeoff

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the integrator gain on the control loop during takeoff. When set to 0 then TECS_INTEG_GAIN is used. Increase to increase the rate at which speed and height offsets are trimmed out. Typically values higher than TECS_INTEG_GAIN work best

Range Increment
0.0 - 0.5 0.02

TECS_LAND_PDAMP: Pitch damping gain when landing

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the damping gain for the pitch demand loop during landing. Increase to add damping to correct for oscillations in speed and height. If set to 0 then TECS_PTCH_DAMP will be used instead.

Range Increment
0.1 - 1.0 0.1

TECS_SYNAIRSPEED: Enable the use of synthetic airspeed

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enable the use of synthetic airspeed for aircraft that don’t have a real airspeed sensor. This is useful for development testing where the user is aware of the considerable limitations of the synthetic airspeed system, such as very poor estimates when a wind estimate is not accurate. Do not enable this option unless you fully understand the limitations of a synthetic airspeed estimate.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disable
1 Enable

MNT Parameters

MNT_DEFLT_MODE: Mount default operating mode

Mount default operating mode on startup and after control is returned from autopilot

Values
Value Meaning
0 Retracted
1 Neutral
2 MavLink Targeting
3 RC Targeting
4 GPS Point

MNT_RETRACT_X: Mount roll angle when in retracted position

Mount roll angle when in retracted position

Range Increment Units
-180.00 - 179.99 1 Degrees

MNT_RETRACT_Y: Mount tilt/pitch angle when in retracted position

Mount tilt/pitch angle when in retracted position

Range Increment Units
-180.00 - 179.99 1 Degrees

MNT_RETRACT_Z: Mount yaw/pan angle when in retracted position

Mount yaw/pan angle when in retracted position

Range Increment Units
-180.00 - 179.99 1 Degrees

MNT_NEUTRAL_X: Mount roll angle when in neutral position

Mount roll angle when in neutral position

Range Increment Units
-180.00 - 179.99 1 Degrees

MNT_NEUTRAL_Y: Mount tilt/pitch angle when in neutral position

Mount tilt/pitch angle when in neutral position

Range Increment Units
-180.00 - 179.99 1 Degrees

MNT_NEUTRAL_Z: Mount pan/yaw angle when in neutral position

Mount pan/yaw angle when in neutral position

Range Increment Units
-180.00 - 179.99 1 Degrees

MNT_STAB_ROLL: Stabilize mount’s roll angle

enable roll stabilisation relative to Earth

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

MNT_STAB_TILT: Stabilize mount’s pitch/tilt angle

enable tilt/pitch stabilisation relative to Earth

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

MNT_STAB_PAN: Stabilize mount pan/yaw angle

enable pan/yaw stabilisation relative to Earth

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

MNT_RC_IN_ROLL: roll RC input channel

0 for none, any other for the RC channel to be used to control roll movements

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
5 RC5
6 RC6
7 RC7
8 RC8
9 RC9
10 RC10
11 RC11
12 RC12

MNT_ANGMIN_ROL: Minimum roll angle

Minimum physical roll angular position of mount.

Range Increment Units
-18000 - 17999 1 Centi-Degrees

MNT_ANGMAX_ROL: Maximum roll angle

Maximum physical roll angular position of the mount

Range Increment Units
-18000 - 17999 1 Centi-Degrees

MNT_RC_IN_TILT: tilt (pitch) RC input channel

0 for none, any other for the RC channel to be used to control tilt (pitch) movements

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
5 RC5
6 RC6
7 RC7
8 RC8
9 RC9
10 RC10
11 RC11
12 RC12

MNT_ANGMIN_TIL: Minimum tilt angle

Minimum physical tilt (pitch) angular position of mount.

Range Increment Units
-18000 - 17999 1 Centi-Degrees

MNT_ANGMAX_TIL: Maximum tilt angle

Maximum physical tilt (pitch) angular position of the mount

Range Increment Units
-18000 - 17999 1 Centi-Degrees

MNT_RC_IN_PAN: pan (yaw) RC input channel

0 for none, any other for the RC channel to be used to control pan (yaw) movements

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
5 RC5
6 RC6
7 RC7
8 RC8
9 RC9
10 RC10
11 RC11
12 RC12

MNT_ANGMIN_PAN: Minimum pan angle

Minimum physical pan (yaw) angular position of mount.

Range Increment Units
-18000 - 17999 1 Centi-Degrees

MNT_ANGMAX_PAN: Maximum pan angle

Maximum physical pan (yaw) angular position of the mount

Range Increment Units
-18000 - 17999 1 Centi-Degrees

MNT_JSTICK_SPD: mount joystick speed

0 for position control, small for low speeds, 100 for max speed. A good general value is 10 which gives a movement speed of 3 degrees per second.

Range Increment
0 - 100 1

MNT_LEAD_RLL: Roll stabilization lead time

Causes the servo angle output to lead the current angle of the vehicle by some amount of time based on current angular rate, compensating for servo delay. Increase until the servo is responsive but doesn’t overshoot. Does nothing with pan stabilization enabled.

Range Increment Units
0.0 - 0.2 .005 Seconds

MNT_LEAD_PTCH: Pitch stabilization lead time

Causes the servo angle output to lead the current angle of the vehicle by some amount of time based on current angular rate. Increase until the servo is responsive but doesn’t overshoot. Does nothing with pan stabilization enabled.

Range Increment Units
0.0 - 0.2 .005 Seconds

MNT_TYPE: Mount Type

Mount Type (None, Servo or MAVLink)

Values RebootRequired
Value Meaning
0 None
1 Servo
2 3DR Solo
3 Alexmos Serial
4 SToRM32 MAVLink
5 SToRM32 Serial
True

MNT2_DEFLT_MODE: Mount default operating mode

Mount default operating mode on startup and after control is returned from autopilot

Values
Value Meaning
0 Retracted
1 Neutral
2 MavLink Targeting
3 RC Targeting
4 GPS Point

MNT2_RETRACT_X: Mount2 roll angle when in retracted position

Mount2 roll angle when in retracted position

Range Increment Units
-180.00 - 179.99 1 Degrees

MNT2_RETRACT_Y: Mount2 tilt/pitch angle when in retracted position

Mount2 tilt/pitch angle when in retracted position

Range Increment Units
-180.00 - 179.99 1 Degrees

MNT2_RETRACT_Z: Mount2 yaw/pan angle when in retracted position

Mount2 yaw/pan angle when in retracted position

Range Increment Units
-180.00 - 179.99 1 Degrees

MNT2_NEUTRAL_X: Mount2 roll angle when in neutral position

Mount2 roll angle when in neutral position

Range Increment Units
-180.00 - 179.99 1 Degrees

MNT2_NEUTRAL_Y: Mount2 tilt/pitch angle when in neutral position

Mount2 tilt/pitch angle when in neutral position

Range Increment Units
-180.00 - 179.99 1 Degrees

MNT2_NEUTRAL_Z: Mount2 pan/yaw angle when in neutral position

Mount2 pan/yaw angle when in neutral position

Range Increment Units
-180.00 - 179.99 1 Degrees

MNT2_STAB_ROLL: Stabilize Mount2’s roll angle

enable roll stabilisation relative to Earth

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

MNT2_STAB_TILT: Stabilize Mount2’s pitch/tilt angle

enable tilt/pitch stabilisation relative to Earth

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

MNT2_STAB_PAN: Stabilize mount2 pan/yaw angle

enable pan/yaw stabilisation relative to Earth

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

MNT2_RC_IN_ROLL: Mount2’s roll RC input channel

0 for none, any other for the RC channel to be used to control roll movements

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
5 RC5
6 RC6
7 RC7
8 RC8
9 RC9
10 RC10
11 RC11
12 RC12

MNT2_ANGMIN_ROL: Mount2’s minimum roll angle

Mount2’s minimum physical roll angular position

Range Increment Units
-18000 - 17999 1 Centi-Degrees

MNT2_ANGMAX_ROL: Mount2’s maximum roll angle

Mount2’s maximum physical roll angular position

Range Increment Units
-18000 - 17999 1 Centi-Degrees

MNT2_RC_IN_TILT: Mount2’s tilt (pitch) RC input channel

0 for none, any other for the RC channel to be used to control tilt (pitch) movements

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
5 RC5
6 RC6
7 RC7
8 RC8
9 RC9
10 RC10
11 RC11
12 RC12

MNT2_ANGMIN_TIL: Mount2’s minimum tilt angle

Mount2’s minimum physical tilt (pitch) angular position

Range Increment Units
-18000 - 17999 1 Centi-Degrees

MNT2_ANGMAX_TIL: Mount2’s maximum tilt angle

Mount2’s maximum physical tilt (pitch) angular position

Range Increment Units
-18000 - 17999 1 Centi-Degrees

MNT2_RC_IN_PAN: Mount2’s pan (yaw) RC input channel

0 for none, any other for the RC channel to be used to control pan (yaw) movements

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
5 RC5
6 RC6
7 RC7
8 RC8
9 RC9
10 RC10
11 RC11
12 RC12

MNT2_ANGMIN_PAN: Mount2’s minimum pan angle

Mount2’s minimum physical pan (yaw) angular position

Range Increment Units
-18000 - 17999 1 Centi-Degrees

MNT2_ANGMAX_PAN: Mount2’s maximum pan angle

MOunt2’s maximum physical pan (yaw) angular position

Range Increment Units
-18000 - 17999 1 Centi-Degrees

MNT2_LEAD_RLL: Mount2’s Roll stabilization lead time

Causes the servo angle output to lead the current angle of the vehicle by some amount of time based on current angular rate, compensating for servo delay. Increase until the servo is responsive but doesn’t overshoot. Does nothing with pan stabilization enabled.

Range Increment Units
0.0 - 0.2 .005 Seconds

MNT2_LEAD_PTCH: Mount2’s Pitch stabilization lead time

Causes the servo angle output to lead the current angle of the vehicle by some amount of time based on current angular rate. Increase until the servo is responsive but doesn’t overshoot. Does nothing with pan stabilization enabled.

Range Increment Units
0.0 - 0.2 .005 Seconds

MNT2_TYPE: Mount2 Type

Mount Type (None, Servo or MAVLink)

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 Servo
2 3DR Solo
3 Alexmos Serial
4 SToRM32 MAVLink
5 SToRM32 Serial

LOG Parameters

LOG_BACKEND_TYPE: DataFlash Backend Storage type

0 for None, 1 for File, 2 for dataflash mavlink, 3 for both file and dataflash

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 File
2 MAVLink
3 BothFileAndMAVLink

LOG_FILE_BUFSIZE: Maximum DataFlash File Backend buffer size (in kilobytes)

The DataFlash_File backend uses a buffer to store data before writing to the block device. Raising this value may reduce “gaps” in your SD card logging. This buffer size may be reduced depending on available memory. PixHawk requires at least 4 kilobytes. Maximum value available here is 64 kilobytes.

LOG_DISARMED: Enable logging while disarmed

If LOG_DISARMED is set to 1 then logging will be enabled while disarmed. This can make for very large logfiles but can help a lot when tracking down startup issues

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

LOG_REPLAY: Enable logging of information needed for Replay

If LOG_REPLAY is set to 1 then the EKF2 state estimator will log detailed information needed for diagnosing problems with the Kalman filter. It is suggested that you also raise LOG_FILE_BUFSIZE to give more buffer space for logging and use a high quality microSD card to ensure no sensor data is lost

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

LOG_FILE_DSRMROT: Stop logging to current file on disarm

When set, the current log file is closed when the vehicle is disarmed. If LOG_DISARMED is set then a fresh log will be opened.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

BATT Parameters

BATT_MONITOR: Battery monitoring

Controls enabling monitoring of the battery’s voltage and current

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
3 Analog Voltage Only
4 Analog Voltage and Current
5 SMBus
6 Bebop

BATT_VOLT_PIN: Battery Voltage sensing pin

Setting this to 0 ~ 13 will enable battery voltage sensing on pins A0 ~ A13. For the 3DR power brick on APM2.5 it should be set to 13. On the PX4 it should be set to 100. On the Pixhawk powered from the PM connector it should be set to 2.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Disabled
0 A0
1 A1
2 Pixhawk
13 A13
100 PX4

BATT_CURR_PIN: Battery Current sensing pin

Setting this to 0 ~ 13 will enable battery current sensing on pins A0 ~ A13. For the 3DR power brick on APM2.5 it should be set to 12. On the PX4 it should be set to 101. On the Pixhawk powered from the PM connector it should be set to 3.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Disabled
1 A1
2 A2
3 Pixhawk
12 A12
101 PX4

BATT_VOLT_MULT: Voltage Multiplier

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Used to convert the voltage of the voltage sensing pin (BATT_VOLT_PIN) to the actual battery’s voltage (pin_voltage * VOLT_MULT). For the 3DR Power brick on APM2 or Pixhawk, this should be set to 10.1. For the Pixhawk with the 3DR 4in1 ESC this should be 12.02. For the PX4 using the PX4IO power supply this should be set to 1.

BATT_AMP_PERVOLT: Amps per volt

Number of amps that a 1V reading on the current sensor corresponds to. On the APM2 or Pixhawk using the 3DR Power brick this should be set to 17. For the Pixhawk with the 3DR 4in1 ESC this should be 17.

Units
Amps/Volt

BATT_AMP_OFFSET: AMP offset

Voltage offset at zero current on current sensor

Units
Volts

BATT_CAPACITY: Battery capacity

Capacity of the battery in mAh when full

Increment Units
50 mAh

BATT_WATT_MAX: Maximum allowed power (Watts)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

If battery wattage (voltage * current) exceeds this value then the system will reduce max throttle (THR_MAX, TKOFF_THR_MAX and THR_MIN for reverse thrust) to satisfy this limit. This helps limit high current to low C rated batteries regardless of battery voltage. The max throttle will slowly grow back to THR_MAX (or TKOFF_THR_MAX ) and THR_MIN if demanding the current max and under the watt max. Use 0 to disable.

Increment Units
1 Watts

BATT2_MONITOR: Battery monitoring

Controls enabling monitoring of the battery’s voltage and current

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
3 Analog Voltage Only
4 Analog Voltage and Current
5 SMBus
6 Bebop

BATT2_VOLT_PIN: Battery Voltage sensing pin

Setting this to 0 ~ 13 will enable battery voltage sensing on pins A0 ~ A13. For the 3DR power brick on APM2.5 it should be set to 13. On the PX4 it should be set to 100. On the Pixhawk powered from the PM connector it should be set to 2.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Disabled
0 A0
1 A1
2 Pixhawk
13 A13
100 PX4

BATT2_CURR_PIN: Battery Current sensing pin

Setting this to 0 ~ 13 will enable battery current sensing on pins A0 ~ A13. For the 3DR power brick on APM2.5 it should be set to 12. On the PX4 it should be set to 101. On the Pixhawk powered from the PM connector it should be set to 3.

Values
Value Meaning
-1 Disabled
1 A1
2 A2
3 Pixhawk
12 A12
101 PX4

BATT2_VOLT_MULT: Voltage Multiplier

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Used to convert the voltage of the voltage sensing pin (BATT_VOLT_PIN) to the actual battery’s voltage (pin_voltage * VOLT_MULT). For the 3DR Power brick on APM2 or Pixhawk, this should be set to 10.1. For the Pixhawk with the 3DR 4in1 ESC this should be 12.02. For the PX4 using the PX4IO power supply this should be set to 1.

BATT2_AMP_PERVOL: Amps per volt

Number of amps that a 1V reading on the current sensor corresponds to. On the APM2 or Pixhawk using the 3DR Power brick this should be set to 17. For the Pixhawk with the 3DR 4in1 ESC this should be 17.

Units
Amps/Volt

BATT2_AMP_OFFSET: AMP offset

Voltage offset at zero current on current sensor

Units
Volts

BATT2_CAPACITY: Battery capacity

Capacity of the battery in mAh when full

Increment Units
50 mAh

BATT2_WATT_MAX: Maximum allowed current

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

If battery wattage (voltage * current) exceeds this value then the system will reduce max throttle (THR_MAX, TKOFF_THR_MAX and THR_MIN for reverse thrust) to satisfy this limit. This helps limit high current to low C rated batteries regardless of battery voltage. The max throttle will slowly grow back to THR_MAX (or TKOFF_THR_MAX ) and THR_MIN if demanding the current max and under the watt max. Use 0 to disable.

Increment Units
1 Amps

BRD_ Parameters

BRD_PWM_COUNT: Auxiliary pin config

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Control assigning of FMU pins to PWM output, timer capture and GPIO. All unassigned pins can be used for GPIO

Values RebootRequired
Value Meaning
0 No PWMs
2 Two PWMs
4 Four PWMs
6 Six PWMs
7 Three PWMs and One Capture
True

BRD_SER1_RTSCTS: Serial 1 flow control

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable flow control on serial 1 (telemetry 1) on Pixhawk. You must have the RTS and CTS pins connected to your radio. The standard DF13 6 pin connector for a 3DR radio does have those pins connected. If this is set to 2 then flow control will be auto-detected by checking for the output buffer filling on startup. Note that the PX4v1 does not have hardware flow control pins on this port, so you should leave this disabled.

Values RebootRequired
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled
2 Auto
True

BRD_SER2_RTSCTS: Serial 2 flow control

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enable flow control on serial 2 (telemetry 2) on Pixhawk and PX4. You must have the RTS and CTS pins connected to your radio. The standard DF13 6 pin connector for a 3DR radio does have those pins connected. If this is set to 2 then flow control will be auto-detected by checking for the output buffer filling on startup.

Values RebootRequired
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled
2 Auto
True

BRD_SAFETYENABLE: Enable use of safety arming switch

This controls the default state of the safety switch at startup. When set to 1 the safety switch will start in the safe state (flashing) at boot. When set to zero the safety switch will start in the unsafe state (solid) at startup. Note that if a safety switch is fitted the user can still control the safety state after startup using the switch. The safety state can also be controlled in software using a MAVLink message.

Values RebootRequired
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled
True

BRD_SBUS_OUT: SBUS output rate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the SBUS output frame rate in Hz

Values RebootRequired
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 50Hz
2 75Hz
3 100Hz
4 150Hz
5 200Hz
6 250Hz
7 300Hz
True

BRD_SERIAL_NUM: User-defined serial number

User-defined serial number of this vehicle, it can be any arbitrary number you want and has no effect on the autopilot

Range
-32767 - 32768

BRD_CAN_ENABLE: Enable use of UAVCAN devices

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Enabling this option on a Pixhawk enables UAVCAN devices. Note that this uses about 25k of memory

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled
2 Dynamic ID/Update

BRD_SAFETY_MASK: Channels to which ignore the safety switch state

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

A bitmask which controls what channels can move while the safety switch has not been pressed

Bitmask Values RebootRequired
Bit Meaning
0 Ch1
1 Ch2
2 Ch3
3 Ch4
4 Ch5
5 Ch6
6 Ch7
7 Ch8
8 Ch9
9 Ch10
10 Ch11
11 Ch12
12 Ch13
13 Ch14
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled
True

BRD_IMU_TARGTEMP: Target IMU temperature

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the target IMU temperature for boards with controllable IMU heating units. A value of -1 disables heating.

Range Units
-1 - 80 degreesC

BRD_TYPE: Board type

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This allows selection of a PX4 or VRBRAIN board type. If set to zero then the board type is auto-detected (PX4)

Values RebootRequired
Value Meaning
0 AUTO
1 PX4V1
2 Pixhawk
3 Pixhawk2
4 Pixracer
5 PixhawkMini
6 Pixhawk2Slim
7 VRBrain 5.1
8 VRBrain 5.2
9 VR Micro Brain 5.1
10 VR Micro Brain 5.2
11 VRBrain Core 1.0
12 VRBrain 5.4
True

AFS_ Parameters

AFS_ENABLE: Enable Advanced Failsafe

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enables the advanced failsafe system. If this is set to zero (disable) then all the other AFS options have no effect

AFS_MAN_PIN: Manual Pin

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets a digital output pin to set high when in manual mode

AFS_HB_PIN: Heartbeat Pin

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets a digital output pin which is cycled at 10Hz when termination is not activated. Note that if a FS_TERM_PIN is set then the heartbeat pin will continue to cycle at 10Hz when termination is activated, to allow the termination board to distinguish between autopilot crash and termination.

AFS_WP_COMMS: Comms Waypoint

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Waypoint number to navigate to on comms loss

AFS_GPS_LOSS: GPS Loss Waypoint

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Waypoint number to navigate to on GPS lock loss

AFS_TERMINATE: Force Terminate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Can be set in flight to force termination of the heartbeat signal

AFS_TERM_ACTION: Terminate action

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This can be used to force an action on flight termination. Normally this is handled by an external failsafe board, but you can setup APM to handle it here. If set to 0 (which is the default) then no extra action is taken. If set to the magic value 42 then the plane will deliberately crash itself by setting maximum throws on all surfaces, and zero throttle

AFS_TERM_PIN: Terminate Pin

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets a digital output pin to set high on flight termination

AFS_AMSL_LIMIT: AMSL limit

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the AMSL (above mean sea level) altitude limit. If the pressure altitude determined by QNH exceeds this limit then flight termination will be forced. Note that this limit is in meters, whereas pressure altitude limits are often quoted in feet. A value of zero disables the pressure altitude limit.

Units
meters

AFS_AMSL_ERR_GPS: Error margin for GPS based AMSL limit

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets margin for error in GPS derived altitude limit. This error margin is only used if the barometer has failed. If the barometer fails then the GPS will be used to enforce the AMSL_LIMIT, but this margin will be subtracted from the AMSL_LIMIT first, to ensure that even with the given amount of GPS altitude error the pressure altitude is not breached. OBC users should set this to comply with their D2 safety case. A value of -1 will mean that barometer failure will lead to immediate termination.

Units
meters

AFS_QNH_PRESSURE: QNH pressure

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the QNH pressure in millibars to be used for pressure altitude in the altitude limit. A value of zero disables the altitude limit.

Units
millibar

AFS_MAX_GPS_LOSS: Maximum number of GPS loss events

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Maximum number of GPS loss events before the aircraft stops returning to mission on GPS recovery. Use zero to allow for any number of GPS loss events.

AFS_MAX_COM_LOSS: Maximum number of comms loss events

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Maximum number of comms loss events before the aircraft stops returning to mission on comms recovery. Use zero to allow for any number of comms loss events.

AFS_GEOFENCE: Enable geofence Advanced Failsafe

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enables the geofence part of the AFS. Will only be in effect if AFS_ENABLE is also 1

AFS_RC: Enable RC Advanced Failsafe

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enables the RC part of the AFS. Will only be in effect if AFS_ENABLE is also 1

AFS_RC_MAN_ONLY: Enable RC Termination only in manual control modes

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

If this parameter is set to 1, then an RC loss will only cause the plane to terminate in manual control modes. If it is 0, then the plane will terminate in any flight mode.

AFS_DUAL_LOSS: Enable dual loss terminate due to failure of both GCS and GPS simultaneously

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enables the dual loss termination part of the AFS system. If this parameter is 1 and both GPS and the ground control station fail simultaneously, this will be considered a “dual loss” and cause termination.

AFS_RC_FAIL_TIME: RC failure time

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the time in seconds in manual mode that failsafe termination will activate if RC input is lost. For the OBC rules this should be (1.5). Use 0 to disable.

Units
seconds

FLOW Parameters

FLOW_ENABLE: Optical flow enable/disable

Setting this to Enabled(1) will enable optical flow. Setting this to Disabled(0) will disable optical flow

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

FLOW_FXSCALER: X axis optical flow scale factor correction

This sets the parts per thousand scale factor correction applied to the flow sensor X axis optical rate. It can be used to correct for variations in effective focal length. Each positive increment of 1 increases the scale factor applied to the X axis optical flow reading by 0.1%. Negative values reduce the scale factor.

Range Increment
-200 - +200 1

FLOW_FYSCALER: Y axis optical flow scale factor correction

This sets the parts per thousand scale factor correction applied to the flow sensor Y axis optical rate. It can be used to correct for variations in effective focal length. Each positive increment of 1 increases the scale factor applied to the Y axis optical flow reading by 0.1%. Negative values reduce the scale factor.

Range Increment
-200 - +200 1

FLOW_ORIENT_YAW: Flow sensor yaw alignment

Specifies the number of centi-degrees that the flow sensor is yawed relative to the vehicle. A sensor with its X-axis pointing to the right of the vehicle X axis has a positive yaw angle.

Range Increment
-18000 - +18000 1

FLOW_POS_X: X position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

X position of the optical flow sensor focal point in body frame. Positive X is forward of the origin.

Units
m

FLOW_POS_Y: Y position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Y position of the optical flow sensor focal point in body frame. Positive Y is to the right of the origin.

Units
m

FLOW_POS_Z: Z position offset

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Z position of the optical flow sensor focal point in body frame. Positive Z is down from the origin.

Units
m

FLOW_BUS_ID: ID on the bus

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is used to select between multiple possible bus IDs for some sensor types. For PX4Flow you can choose 0 to 7 for the 8 possible addresses on the I2C bus.

Range
0 - 255

MIS_ Parameters

MIS_TOTAL: Total mission commands

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The number of mission mission items that has been loaded by the ground station. Do not change this manually.

Range Increment
0 - 32766 1

MIS_RESTART: Mission Restart when entering Auto mode

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Controls mission starting point when entering Auto mode (either restart from beginning of mission or resume from last command run)

Values
Value Meaning
0 Resume Mission
1 Restart Mission

RALLY_ Parameters

RALLY_TOTAL: Rally Total

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Number of rally points currently loaded

RALLY_LIMIT_KM: Rally Limit

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Maximum distance to rally point. If the closest rally point is more than this number of kilometers from the current position and the home location is closer than any of the rally points from the current position then do RTL to home rather than to the closest rally point. This prevents a leftover rally point from a different airfield being used accidentally. If this is set to 0 then the closest rally point is always used.

Increment Units
0.1 kilometers

RALLY_INCL_HOME: Rally Include Home

Controls if Home is included as a Rally point (i.e. as a safe landing place) for RTL

Values
Value Meaning
0 DoNotIncludeHome
1 IncludeHome

EKF_ Parameters

EKF_ENABLE: Enable EKF1

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enables EKF1 to be disabled when using alternative algorithms. When disabling it, the alternate EKF2 estimator must be enabled by setting EK2_ENABLED = 1 and flight control algorithms must be set to use the alternative estimator by setting AHRS_EKF_TYPE = 2.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

EKF_VELNE_NOISE: GPS horizontal velocity measurement noise scaler

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the scaler that is applied to the speed accuracy reported by the receiver to estimate the horizontal velocity observation noise. If the model of receiver used does not provide a speed accurcy estimate, then a speed accuracy of 1 is assumed. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

Range Increment
0.05 - 5.0 0.05

EKF_VELD_NOISE: GPS vertical velocity measurement noise scaler

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the scaler that is applied to the speed accuracy reported by the receiver to estimate the vertical velocity observation noise. If the model of receiver used does not provide a speed accurcy estimate, then a speed accuracy of 1 is assumed. Increasing it reduces the weighting on this measurement.

Range Increment
0.05 - 5.0 0.05

EKF_POSNE_NOISE: GPS horizontal position measurement noise (m)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in the GPS horizontal position measurements. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

Range Increment Units
0.1 - 10.0 0.1 meters

EKF_ALT_NOISE: Altitude measurement noise (m)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in the altitude measurement. Increasing it reduces the weighting on this measurement.

Range Increment Units
0.1 - 10.0 0.1 meters

EKF_MAG_NOISE: Magnetometer measurement noise (Gauss)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in magnetometer measurements. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

Range Increment
0.01 - 0.5 0.01

EKF_EAS_NOISE: Equivalent airspeed measurement noise (m/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in equivalent airspeed measurements. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

Range Increment Units
0.5 - 5.0 0.1 m/s

EKF_WIND_PNOISE: Wind velocity process noise (m/s^2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of wind state error estimates. Increasing it makes wind estimation faster and noisier.

Range Increment
0.01 - 1.0 0.1

EKF_WIND_PSCALE: Height rate to wind procss noise scaler

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Increasing this parameter increases how rapidly the wind states adapt when changing altitude, but does make wind speed estimation noiser.

Range Increment
0.0 - 1.0 0.1

EKF_GYRO_PNOISE: Rate gyro noise (rad/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of estimated error due to gyro measurement errors excluding bias. Increasing it makes the flter trust the gyro measurements less and other measurements more.

Range Increment Units
0.001 - 0.05 0.001 rad/s

EKF_ACC_PNOISE: Accelerometer noise (m/s^2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of estimated error due to accelerometer measurement errors excluding bias. Increasing it makes the flter trust the accelerometer measurements less and other measurements more.

Range Increment Units
0.05 - 1.0 0.01 m/s/s

EKF_GBIAS_PNOISE: Rate gyro bias process noise (rad/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of gyro bias state error estimates. Increasing it makes rate gyro bias estimation faster and noisier.

Range Units
0.0000001 - 0.00001 rad/s

EKF_ABIAS_PNOISE: Accelerometer bias process noise (m/s^2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of the vertical acelerometer bias state error estimate. Increasing it makes accelerometer bias estimation faster and noisier.

Range Units
0.00001 - 0.001 m/s/s

EKF_MAGE_PNOISE: Earth magnetic field process noise (gauss/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of earth magnetic field state error estimates. Increasing it makes earth magnetic field bias estimation faster and noisier.

Range Units
0.0001 - 0.01 gauss/s

EKF_MAGB_PNOISE: Body magnetic field process noise (gauss/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of body magnetic field state error estimates. Increasing it makes compass offset estimation faster and noisier.

Range Units
0.0001 - 0.01 gauss/s

EKF_VEL_DELAY: GPS velocity measurement delay (msec)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the number of msec that the GPS velocity measurements lag behind the inertial measurements.

Range Increment Units
0 - 500 10 milliseconds

EKF_POS_DELAY: GPS position measurement delay (msec)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the number of msec that the GPS position measurements lag behind the inertial measurements.

Range Increment Units
0 - 500 10 milliseconds

EKF_GPS_TYPE: GPS mode control

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter controls use of GPS measurements : 0 = use 3D velocity & 2D position, 1 = use 2D velocity and 2D position, 2 = use 2D position, 3 = use no GPS (optical flow will be used if available)

Values
Value Meaning
0 GPS 3D Vel and 2D Pos
1 GPS 2D vel and 2D pos
2 GPS 2D pos
3 No GPS use optical flow

EKF_VEL_GATE: GPS velocity measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the GPS velocity measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements willbe rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
1 - 100 1

EKF_POS_GATE: GPS position measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the GPS position measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
1 - 100 1

EKF_HGT_GATE: Height measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the height measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
1 - 100 1

EKF_MAG_GATE: Magnetometer measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the magnetometer measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
1 - 100 1

EKF_EAS_GATE: Airspeed measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the airspeed measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
1 - 100 1

EKF_MAG_CAL: Magnetometer calibration mode

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

EKF_MAG_CAL = 0 enables calibration based on flying speed and altitude and is the default setting for Plane users. EKF_MAG_CAL = 1 enables calibration based on manoeuvre level and is the default setting for Copter and Rover users. EKF_MAG_CAL = 2 prevents magnetometer calibration regardless of flight condition and is recommended if in-flight magnetometer calibration is unreliable.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Speed and Height
1 Acceleration
2 Never
3 Always

EKF_GLITCH_ACCEL: GPS glitch accel gate size (cm/s^2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter controls the maximum amount of difference in horizontal acceleration between the value predicted by the filter and the value measured by the GPS before the GPS position data is rejected. If this value is set too low, then valid GPS data will be regularly discarded, and the position accuracy will degrade. If this parameter is set too high, then large GPS glitches will cause large rapid changes in position.

Range Increment
100 - 500 50

EKF_GLITCH_RAD: GPS glitch radius gate size (m)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter controls the maximum amount of difference in horizontal position (in m) between the value predicted by the filter and the value measured by the GPS before the long term glitch protection logic is activated and the filter states are reset to the new GPS position. Position steps smaller than this value will be temporarily ignored, but will then be accepted and the filter will move to the new position. Position steps larger than this value will be ignored initially, but the filter will then apply an offset to the GPS position measurement.

Range Increment Units
10 - 50 5 meters

EKF_GND_GRADIENT: Terrain Gradient % RMS

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the RMS terrain gradient percentage assumed by the terrain height estimation. Terrain height can be estimated using optical flow and/or range finder sensor data if fitted. Smaller values cause the terrain height estimate to be slower to respond to changes in measurement. Larger values cause the terrain height estimate to be faster to respond, but also more noisy. Generally this value can be reduced if operating over very flat terrain and increased if operating over uneven terrain.

Range Increment
1 - 50 1

EKF_FLOW_NOISE: Optical flow measurement noise (rad/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise and errors in optical flow measurements. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

Range Increment Units
0.05 - 1.0 0.05 rad/s

EKF_FLOW_GATE: Optical Flow measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the optical flow innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
1 - 100 1

EKF_FLOW_DELAY: Optical Flow measurement delay (msec)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the number of msec that the optical flow measurements lag behind the inertial measurements. It is the time from the end of the optical flow averaging period and does not include the time delay due to the 100msec of averaging within the flow sensor.

Range Increment Units
0 - 500 10 milliseconds

EKF_RNG_GATE: Range finder measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the number of standard deviations applied to the range finder innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
1 - 100 1

EKF_MAX_FLOW: Maximum valid optical flow rate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter sets the magnitude maximum optical flow rate in rad/sec that will be accepted by the filter

Range Increment
1.0 - 4.0 0.1

EKF_FALLBACK: Fallback strictness

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter controls the conditions necessary to trigger a fallback to DCM and INAV. A value of 1 will cause fallbacks to occur on loss of GPS and other conditions. A value of 0 will trust the EKF more.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Trust EKF more
1 Trust DCM more

EKF_ALT_SOURCE: Primary height source

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter controls which height sensor is used by the EKF during optical flow navigation (when EKF_GPS_TYPE = 3). A value of will 0 cause it to always use baro altitude. A value of 1 will cause it to use range finder if available.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Use Baro
1 Use Range Finder

EKF_GPS_CHECK: GPS preflight check

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

1 byte bitmap of GPS preflight checks to perform. Set to 0 to bypass all checks. Set to 255 perform all checks. Set to 3 to check just the number of satellites and HDoP. Set to 31 for the most rigorous checks that will still allow checks to pass when the copter is moving, eg launch from a boat.

Bitmask
Bit Meaning
0 NSats
1 HDoP
2 speed error
3 horiz pos error
4 yaw error
5 pos drift
6 vert speed
7 horiz speed

EK2_ Parameters

EK2_ENABLE: Enable EKF2

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This enables EKF2. Enabling EKF2 only makes the maths run, it does not mean it will be used for flight control. To use it for flight control set AHRS_EKF_TYPE=2. A reboot or restart will need to be performed after changing the value of EK2_ENABLE for it to take effect.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 Enabled

EK2_GPS_TYPE: GPS mode control

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls use of GPS measurements : 0 = use 3D velocity & 2D position, 1 = use 2D velocity and 2D position, 2 = use 2D position, 3 = Inhibit GPS use - this can be useful when flying with an optical flow sensor in an environment where GPS quality is poor and subject to large multipath errors.

Values
Value Meaning
0 GPS 3D Vel and 2D Pos
1 GPS 2D vel and 2D pos
2 GPS 2D pos
3 No GPS

EK2_VELNE_M_NSE: GPS horizontal velocity measurement noise (m/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets a lower limit on the speed accuracy reported by the GPS receiver that is used to set horizontal velocity observation noise. If the model of receiver used does not provide a speed accurcy estimate, then the parameter value will be used. Increasing it reduces the weighting of the GPS horizontal velocity measurements.

Range Increment Units
0.05 - 5.0 0.05 m/s

EK2_VELD_M_NSE: GPS vertical velocity measurement noise (m/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets a lower limit on the speed accuracy reported by the GPS receiver that is used to set vertical velocity observation noise. If the model of receiver used does not provide a speed accurcy estimate, then the parameter value will be used. Increasing it reduces the weighting of the GPS vertical velocity measurements.

Range Increment Units
0.05 - 5.0 0.05 m/s

EK2_VEL_I_GATE: GPS velocity innovation gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the GPS velocity measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements willbe rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
100 - 1000 25

EK2_POSNE_M_NSE: GPS horizontal position measurement noise (m)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the GPS horizontal position observation noise. Increasing it reduces the weighting of GPS horizontal position measurements.

Range Increment Units
0.1 - 10.0 0.1 m

EK2_POS_I_GATE: GPS position measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the GPS position measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
100 - 1000 25

EK2_GLITCH_RAD: GPS glitch radius gate size (m)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls the maximum radial uncertainty in position between the value predicted by the filter and the value measured by the GPS before the filter position and velocity states are reset to the GPS. Making this value larger allows the filter to ignore larger GPS glitches but also means that non-GPS errors such as IMU and compass can create a larger error in position before the filter is forced back to the GPS position.

Range Increment Units
10 - 100 5 m

EK2_GPS_DELAY: GPS measurement delay (msec)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the number of msec that the GPS measurements lag behind the inertial measurements.

Range Increment Units
0 - 250 10 msec

EK2_ALT_SOURCE: Primary height source

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This parameter controls the primary height sensor used by the EKF. If the selected option cannot be used, it will default to Baro as the primary height source. Setting 0 will use the baro altitude at all times. Setting 1 uses the range finder and is only available in combination with optical flow navigation (EK2_GPS_TYPE = 3). Setting 2 uses GPS. Setting 3 uses the range beacon data. NOTE - the EK2_RNG_USE_HGT parameter can be used to switch to range-finder when close to the ground.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Use Baro
1 Use Range Finder
2 Use GPS
3 Use Range Beacon

EK2_ALT_M_NSE: Altitude measurement noise (m)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in the altitude measurement. Increasing it reduces the weighting of the baro measurement and will make the filter respond more slowly to baro measurement errors, but will make it more sensitive to GPS and accelerometer errors.

Range Increment Units
0.1 - 10.0 0.1 m

EK2_HGT_I_GATE: Height measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the height measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
100 - 1000 25

EK2_HGT_DELAY: Height measurement delay (msec)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the number of msec that the Height measurements lag behind the inertial measurements.

Range Increment Units
0 - 250 10 msec

EK2_MAG_M_NSE: Magnetometer measurement noise (Gauss)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in magnetometer measurements. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

Range Increment Units
0.01 - 0.5 0.01 gauss

EK2_MAG_CAL: Magnetometer calibration mode

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

EKF_MAG_CAL = 0 enables calibration when airborne and is the default setting for Plane users. EKF_MAG_CAL = 1 enables calibration when manoeuvreing. EKF_MAG_CAL = 2 prevents magnetometer calibration regardless of flight condition, is recommended if the external magnetic field is varying and is the default for rovers. EKF_MAG_CAL = 3 enables calibration when the first in-air field and yaw reset has completed and is the default for copters. EKF_MAG_CAL = 4 enables calibration all the time. This determines when the filter will use the 3-axis magnetometer fusion model that estimates both earth and body fixed magnetic field states. This model is only suitable for use when the external magnetic field environment is stable.

Values
Value Meaning
0 When flying
1 When manoeuvring
2 Never
3 After first climb yaw reset
4 Always

EK2_MAG_I_GATE: Magnetometer measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the magnetometer measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
100 - 1000 25

EK2_EAS_M_NSE: Equivalent airspeed measurement noise (m/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in equivalent airspeed measurements used by planes. Increasing it reduces the weighting of airspeed measurements and will make wind speed estimates less noisy and slower to converge. Increasing also increases navigation errors when dead-reckoning without GPS measurements.

Range Increment Units
0.5 - 5.0 0.1 m/s

EK2_EAS_I_GATE: Airspeed measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the airspeed measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
100 - 1000 25

EK2_RNG_M_NSE: Range finder measurement noise (m)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in the range finder measurement. Increasing it reduces the weighting on this measurement.

Range Increment Units
0.1 - 10.0 0.1 m

EK2_RNG_I_GATE: Range finder measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the range finder innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
100 - 1000 25

EK2_MAX_FLOW: Maximum valid optical flow rate

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the magnitude maximum optical flow rate in rad/sec that will be accepted by the filter

Range Increment Units
1.0 - 4.0 0.1 rad/s

EK2_FLOW_M_NSE: Optical flow measurement noise (rad/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise and errors in optical flow measurements. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

Range Increment Units
0.05 - 1.0 0.05 rad/s

EK2_FLOW_I_GATE: Optical Flow measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the optical flow innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
100 - 1000 25

EK2_FLOW_DELAY: Optical Flow measurement delay (msec)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the number of msec that the optical flow measurements lag behind the inertial measurements. It is the time from the end of the optical flow averaging period and does not include the time delay due to the 100msec of averaging within the flow sensor.

Range Increment Units
0 - 250 10 msec

EK2_GYRO_P_NSE: Rate gyro noise (rad/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This control disturbance noise controls the growth of estimated error due to gyro measurement errors excluding bias. Increasing it makes the flter trust the gyro measurements less and other measurements more.

Range Increment Units
0.0001 - 0.1 0.0001 rad/s

EK2_ACC_P_NSE: Accelerometer noise (m/s^2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This control disturbance noise controls the growth of estimated error due to accelerometer measurement errors excluding bias. Increasing it makes the flter trust the accelerometer measurements less and other measurements more.

Range Increment Units
0.01 - 1.0 0.01 m/s/s

EK2_GBIAS_P_NSE: Rate gyro bias stability (rad/s/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This state process noise controls growth of the gyro delta angle bias state error estimate. Increasing it makes rate gyro bias estimation faster and noisier.

Range Units
0.00001 - 0.001 rad/s/s

EK2_GSCL_P_NSE: Rate gyro scale factor stability (1/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the rate of gyro scale factor learning. Increasing it makes rate gyro scale factor estimation faster and noisier.

Range Units
0.000001 - 0.001 1/s

EK2_ABIAS_P_NSE: Accelerometer bias stability (m/s^3)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This noise controls the growth of the vertical accelerometer delta velocity bias state error estimate. Increasing it makes accelerometer bias estimation faster and noisier.

Range Units
0.00001 - 0.001 m/s/s/s

EK2_WIND_P_NSE: Wind velocity process noise (m/s^2)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This state process noise controls the growth of wind state error estimates. Increasing it makes wind estimation faster and noisier.

Range Increment Units
0.01 - 1.0 0.1 m/s/s

EK2_WIND_PSCALE: Height rate to wind procss noise scaler

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This controls how much the process noise on the wind states is increased when gaining or losing altitude to take into account changes in wind speed and direction with altitude. Increasing this parameter increases how rapidly the wind states adapt when changing altitude, but does make wind velocity estimation noiser.

Range Increment
0.0 - 1.0 0.1

EK2_GPS_CHECK: GPS preflight check

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is a 1 byte bitmap controlling which GPS preflight checks are performed. Set to 0 to bypass all checks. Set to 255 perform all checks. Set to 3 to check just the number of satellites and HDoP. Set to 31 for the most rigorous checks that will still allow checks to pass when the copter is moving, eg launch from a boat.

Bitmask
Bit Meaning
0 NSats
1 HDoP
2 speed error
3 horiz pos error
4 yaw error
5 pos drift
6 vert speed
7 horiz speed

EK2_IMU_MASK: Bitmask of active IMUs

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

1 byte bitmap of IMUs to use in EKF2. A separate instance of EKF2 will be started for each IMU selected. Set to 1 to use the first IMU only (default), set to 2 to use the second IMU only, set to 3 to use the first and second IMU. Additional IMU’s can be used up to a maximum of 6 if memory and processing resources permit. There may be insufficient memory and processing resources to run multiple instances. If this occurs EKF2 will fail to start.

Range
1 - 127

EK2_CHECK_SCALE: GPS accuracy check scaler (%)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This scales the thresholds that are used to check GPS accuracy before it is used by the EKF. A value of 100 is the default. Values greater than 100 increase and values less than 100 reduce the maximum GPS error the EKF will accept. A value of 200 will double the allowable GPS error.

Range Units
50 - 200 %

EK2_NOAID_M_NSE: Non-GPS operation position uncertainty (m)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the amount of position variation that the EKF allows for when operating without external measurements (eg GPS or optical flow). Increasing this parameter makes the EKF attitude estimate less sensitive to vehicle manoeuvres but more sensitive to IMU errors.

Range Units
0.5 - 50.0 m/s

EK2_LOG_MASK: EKF sensor logging IMU mask

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the IMU mask of sensors to do full logging for

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 FirstIMU
3 FirstAndSecondIMU
7 AllIMUs

EK2_YAW_M_NSE: Yaw measurement noise (rad)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in yaw measurements from the magnetometer. Increasing it reduces the weighting on these measurements.

Range Increment Units
0.05 - 1.0 0.05 gauss

EK2_YAW_I_GATE: Yaw measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the magnetometer yaw measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
100 - 1000 25

EK2_TAU_OUTPUT: Output complementary filter time constant (centi-sec)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Sets the time constant of the output complementary filter/predictor in centi-seconds.

Range Increment
10 - 50 5

EK2_MAGE_P_NSE: Earth magnetic field process noise (gauss/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This state process noise controls the growth of earth magnetic field state error estimates. Increasing it makes earth magnetic field estimation faster and noisier.

Range Units
0.00001 - 0.01 gauss/s

EK2_MAGB_P_NSE: Body magnetic field process noise (gauss/s)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This state process noise controls the growth of body magnetic field state error estimates. Increasing it makes magnetometer bias error estimation faster and noisier.

Range Units
0.00001 - 0.01 gauss/s

EK2_RNG_USE_HGT: Range finder switch height percentage

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

The range finder will be used as the primary height source when below a specified percentage of the sensor maximum as set by the RNGFND_MAX_CM parameter. Set to -1 to prevent range finder use.

Range Increment Units
-1 - 70 1 %

EK2_TERR_GRAD: Maximum terrain gradient

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Specifies the maxium gradient of the terrain below the vehicle when it is using range finder as a height reference

Range Increment
0 - 0.2 0.01

EK2_BCN_M_NSE: Range beacon measurement noise (m)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the RMS value of noise in the range beacon measurement. Increasing it reduces the weighting on this measurement.

Range Increment Units
0.1 - 10.0 0.1 m

EK2_BCN_I_GTE: Range beacon measurement gate size

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This sets the percentage number of standard deviations applied to the range beacon measurement innovation consistency check. Decreasing it makes it more likely that good measurements will be rejected. Increasing it makes it more likely that bad measurements will be accepted.

Range Increment
100 - 1000 25

EK2_BCN_DELAY: Range beacon measurement delay (msec)

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

This is the number of msec that the range beacon measurements lag behind the inertial measurements. It is the time from the end of the optical flow averaging period and does not include the time delay due to the 100msec of averaging within the flow sensor.

Range Increment Units
0 - 250 10 msec

RPM Parameters

RPM_TYPE: RPM type

What type of RPM sensor is connected

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 PX4-PWM

RPM_SCALING: RPM scaling

Scaling factor between sensor reading and RPM.

Increment
0.001

RPM_MAX: Maximum RPM

Maximum RPM to report

Increment
1

RPM_MIN: Minimum RPM

Minimum RPM to report

Increment
1

RPM_MIN_QUAL: Minimum Quality

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Minimum data quality to be used

Increment
0.1

RPM2_TYPE: Second RPM type

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

What type of RPM sensor is connected

Values
Value Meaning
0 None
1 PX4-PWM

RPM2_SCALING: RPM scaling

Note: This parameter is for advanced users

Scaling factor between sensor reading and RPM.

Increment
0.001

RSSI_ Parameters

RSSI_TYPE: RSSI Type

Radio Receiver RSSI type. If your radio receiver supports RSSI of some kind, set it here, then set its associated RSSI_XXXXX parameters, if any.

Values
Value Meaning
0 Disabled
1 AnalogPin
2 RCChannelPwmValue

RSSI_ANA_PIN: Receiver RSSI analog sensing pin

This selects an analog pin where the receiver RSSI voltage will be read.

Values
Value Meaning
0 APM2 A0
1 APM2 A1
13 APM2 A13
11 Pixracer
13 Pixhawk ADC4
14 Pixhawk ADC3
15 Pixhawk ADC6
103 Pixhawk SBUS

RSSI_PIN_LOW: Receiver RSSI voltage low

This is the voltage value that the radio receiver will put on the RSSI_ANA_PIN when the signal strength is the weakest. Since some radio receivers put out inverted values from what you might otherwise expect, this isn’t necessarily a lower value than RSSI_PIN_HIGH.

Range Increment Units
0 - 5.0 0.01 Volt

RSSI_PIN_HIGH: Receiver RSSI voltage high

This is the voltage value that the radio receiver will put on the RSSI_ANA_PIN when the signal strength is the strongest. Since some radio receivers put out inverted values from what you might otherwise expect, this isn’t necessarily a higher value than RSSI_PIN_LOW.

Range Increment Units
0 - 5.0 0.01 Volt

RSSI_CHANNEL: Receiver RSSI channel number

The channel number where RSSI will be output by the radio receiver (5 and above).

Units
 

RSSI_CHAN_LOW: Receiver RSSI PWM low value

This is the PWM value that the radio receiver will put on the RSSI_CHANNEL when the signal strength is the weakest. Since some radio receivers put out inverted values from what you might otherwise expect, this isn’t necessarily a lower value than RSSI_CHAN_HIGH.

Range Units
0 - 2000 Microseconds

RSSI_CHAN_HIGH: Receiver RSSI PWM high value

This is the PWM value that the radio receiver will put on the RSSI_CHANNEL when the signal strength is the strongest. Since some radio receivers put out inverted values from what you might otherwise expect, this isn’t necessarily a higher value than RSSI_CHAN_LOW.

Range Units