TRAINING mode is ideal for teaching students manual R/C control. It gives users complete control over the rudder and throttle, but clips the maximum roll and maximum/minimum pitch to certain limits which cannot be exceeded. TRAINING mode also restricts plane roll to the Stall Prevention roll limits.

More specifically:

  • If the roll is less the ROLL_LIMIT_DEG parameter than the pilot has manual roll control. If the plane tries to roll past that limit then the roll will be held at that limit. The plane will not automatically roll back to level flight, but it will prevent the pilot from rolling past the limit. The same applies to pitch - the pilot has manual pitch control until the PTCH_LIM_MIN_DEG or PTCH_LIM_MAX_DEG limits are reached, at which point the plane won’t allow the pitch to go past those limits.

  • When turning, the autopilot will monitor the demanded bank angle and airspeed and work out if there is a sufficient margin above the stall speed to turn at the demanded bank angle. If not the bank angle is limited to the safe value. The stall prevention system will always allow a bank of at least 25 degrees (to ensure you can still manoeuvre if your airspeed estimate is badly off).

  • The rudder and throttle are both completely under manual control.


the MAN_EXPO_ROLL, MAN_EXPO_PITCH, and MAN_EXPO_RUDDER parameters will apply exponential to the stick inputs, if non-zero, in this mode. This is for users with transmitters which do not provide this function and desire to “soften” stick feel around neutral.