Choosing an Autopilot

ArduPilot runs on many different autopilot boards, the most important of which are linked from the topic AutoPilot Hardware Options.

Selecting the right board depends on the physical restraints of the vehicle, features desired, and the applications that you want to run. Factors to consider are:

  1. Sensor Redundancy: ArduPilot supports redundant IMUS, GPS, etc. Many controllers have multiple IMUs integrated on board.

  2. Number of Servo/Motor Outputs

  3. Number of UARTs: Telemetry radios, GPS’s, Companion Computers, etc can be attached via these ports

  4. External Buses: I2C, CAN, etc. allow many types of devices, such as airspeed sensors, LED controllers, etc. to be attached to the autopilot.

  5. Number of Analog I/O: Some controllers have analog I/O available for such features as inputting receiver signal strength (RSSI) or battery voltage/current or other analog sensors.

  6. Integrated Features: Such as on-board OSD (On Screen Display), integrated battery monitoring sensors

  7. Size: Many vehicles have limited space for the autopilot.

  8. Expense: Controller prices range from ~$25 to much more, depending on feature set.

Broadly speaking:

  • Pixhawk is highly recommended for general use where sensor redundancy is desired and flexible external expansion.

  • The “CUBE”, CUAV V5, and Holybro Durandal/KakuteF7 AIO series of controllers offer mechanical vibration isolation of the IMUs built-in.

  • Pixracer is recommended for small frames that require no more than 6 PWM outputs, with sensor redundancy.

  • Emlid NAVIO2 Linux Autopilots should be considered for UAV Vision applications.


There are also numerous clones and minor variants of the boards linked above. Many of these may be perfectly capable replacements.

  • If redundant sensors are not required, many inexpensive controllers originally targeted for mini-quadcopter use are now supported by ArduPilot and are also listed in AutoPilot Hardware Options.